REVIEW - Phytochemical Screening and Extraction

Topics: Ethanol, Solvent, Antimicrobial Pages: 56 (4258 words) Published: October 12, 2013
INTERNATIONALE PHARMACEUTICA SCIENCIA
| Jan-March 2011 | Vol. 1 | Issue 1 |
Available online http://www.ipharmsciencia.com
©2011 IPS
REVIEW ARTICLE

Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review
ABSTRACT
Plants are a source of large amount of drugs comprising to different groups such as antispasmodics, emetics, anti-cancer, antimicrobials etc. A large number of the plants are claimed to possess the antibiotic properties in the traditional system and are also used extensively by the tribal people worldwide. It is now believed that nature has given the cure of every disease in one way or another. Plants have been known to relieve various diseases in Ayurveda.

Therefore,

the

researchers

today

are

emphasizing

on

evaluation

Prashant Tiwari*, Bimlesh
Kumar, Mandeep Kaur, Gurpreet
Kaur, Harleen Kaur
Department of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Lovely School of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Phagwara,
Punjab

and

Date of Submission: 12-01-2011
Date of Acceptance: 22-02-2011
Conflict of interest: Nil
Source of support: None

characterization of various plants and plant constituents against a number of diseases based on their traditional claims of the plants given in Ayurveda. Extraction of the bioactive plant constituents has always been a challenging task for the researchers. In this present review, an attempt has been made to give an overview of certain extractants and extraction processes with their advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, phytochemicals, extraction, solvent, screening.

INTRODUCTION

extracts. Such preparations have been popularly called

Plant-derived substances have recently become of

galenicals, named after Galen, the second century

great interest owing to their versatile applications.

Greek physician [2].

Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resource of drugs

Extraction methods used pharmaceutically involves

of

the separation of medicinally active portions of plant

traditional

systems

medicines, nutraceuticals,

of

modern
folk

tissues from the inactive/inert components by using

medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical

selective solvents. During extraction, solvents diffuse

entities for synthetic drugs [1].

into the solid plant material and solubilize compounds

Extraction (as the term is pharmaceutically used) is the

with similar polarity [1].

separation of medicinally active portions of plant (and

The purpose of standardized extraction procedures for

animal) tissues using selective solvents through

crude drugs (medicinal plant parts) is to attain the

standard procedures. The products so obtained from

therapeutically desired portions and to eliminate

plants are relatively complex mixtures of metabolites,

unwanted material by treatment with a selective

in liquid or semisolid state or (after removing the

solvent known as menstrum. The extract thus

solvent) in dry powder form, and are intended for oral

obtained, after standardization, may be used as

or external use. These include classes of preparations

medicinal agent as such in the form of tinctures or

known

extracts,

fluid extracts or further processed to be incorporated

tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extracts or powdered

in any dosage form such as tablets and capsules. These

as

decoctions,

food

medicine,

supplements,

infusions,

fluid

products contains complex mixture of many medicinal

Address for correspondence
*Prashant Tiwari (Research Scholar)
Department of Pharmaceutical sciences
Lovely Professional University,
Ludhiana-Jalandhar G.T. Road
Phagwara (Punjab), 144402, India
*Mob: +919888418518 E.mail: parshant.tiwari@gmail.com
98

plant metabolites, such as alkaloids, glycosides,
terpenoids, flavonoids and lignans [3].
The general techniques of medicinal plant extraction
include maceration, infusion, percolation, digestion,...

References: sheep. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2009; 11: 431–436.
Terminalia arjuna bark. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2009; 11:
273-278.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay on phytochemical screening
  • Phytochemical Essay
  • Essay on Phytochemicals
  • Essay about Phytochemical Screening of Talahib
  • Extraction Essay
  • Extraction Essay
  • phytochemical Essay
  • Phytochemicals Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free