* In any event, the benefits of seed treatment are most likely to be realized under certain circumstances and are subjective like: * Crops planted in mid-April to early-May, especially no-till or minimum till with abundant crop residue. * Narrow spectrum seed treatments are effective against specific genera of fungi that cause damping-off, such as Pythium, above. * Fields with a history of post-planting problems (minor soil crusting, temporary flooding, soil compaction, poorly drained soils). * When low seeding rates are used.
* When seed planted is of moderate germination or the germination rate is unknown (note: use of seed of unknown or low germination is strongly discouraged). * When precision of seeding rate, fertilizer application and/or herbicide application cannot be assured. * Where Phytophthora is a historical problem, in which case a Phytophthoratoleran soybean cultivar should be planted that has been treated with either metalaxyl- or mefanoxam. * Numerous environmental hazards and disadvantages attached to the usage of chemical treatment ( insecticides and pesticides) * Accidental poisoning. Treated seed looks like food to some animals. Hungry livestock that find carelessly handled treated seed will probably eat it. Birds, such as pheasants or quail, may consume spilled treated seed. Even young children may find and eat improperly stored treated seed. * Cropping restrictions. Just like other pesticides, some seed treatments may have significant grazing or rotation crop restrictions. * Limited dose capacity. The amount of pesticide that can be applied is limited by how much will actually stick to the seed. * Seed coating technologies are helping to overcome this limitation, but phytotoxicity may still be a problem. * Limited duration of protection. The duration of protection is often short due to the relatively small amount of chemical applied to the seed, dilution of the chemical as the plant grows, and breakdown of the chemical. * Limited shelf life of treated seed. Producing excess treated seed is undesirable because the shelf life of treated seed may be limited. Surplus treated seed cannot be sold for grain. This is a particularly serious limitation for seeds such as soybean, where seed germination and vigor decline relatively quickly. * Phytotoxicity. Pesticide injury to plant tissues is called phytotoxicity. Since seed treatments must exist in high concentrations on the tender tissues of germinating seeds and seedlings, they generally have very low phytotoxicity. A few seed treatments are partly phytotoxic when applied at high rates. Lower germination and/or stunting may occur if application rates are not carefully controlled. Cracked, sprouted, and scuffed seeds may by particularly susceptible to toxic effects. A few seed treatments may reduce the length of the sprout and, therefore, affect the choice of planting depth. * Worker exposure. In the course of treating and handling large volumes of seed, workers may be exposed to seed treatment chemicals as aerosols. Inhalation of aerosols and skin contact with seed treatments must be prevented in the seed treatment process.
* Environmental laws restricting the usage of pesticides and insecticides: * Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) * Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)
* Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)
* Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
* Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA)
* Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
* Reductions in agricultural price support due economic difficulties in major crop producing countries – farming becoming more cyclical, and lower investment in inputs, by some farmers. * An absence of centralized government regulations for treated seed and seed treatment active ingredient registration are expected to hamper the growth and demand for seed treatments. * Lack of awareness amongst conventional farmers hampering the usage of seed treatment at root levels in many developing agriculture based economies having significantly low literacy rates.