Water and its uses
The average consumption of water in India
per person each day is minimum 135L.
This water is used for various purposes from
bathing to drinking.
This water used should be clean and sterile.
Water holds more importance than most of
Due to rising threats on ecosystem it has
become necessary to find means of saving
Resources of water –
The fresh water resources are…
Under river flow
Surface waterSurface water is water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland. Surface water
is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation, evapotranspiration and sub-surface seepage.
Although the only natural input to any surface water system is precipitation within its watershed, the total quantity of water in that system at any given time is also dependent on many other factors. These factors include storage capacity in lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs, the permeability of the soil beneath these storage bodies, the runof characteristics of the land in the watershed, the timing of the precipitation and local evaporation rates. All of these factors also afect the proportions of water loss.
Human activities can have a large and sometimes devastating impact on these factors. Humans often increase storage capacity by constructing reservoirs and decrease it by draining wetlands. Humans often increase runof quantities and velocities by paving areas and channelizing stream flow.
Under river flow
Throughout the course of a river, the total volume of water
transported downstream will often be a combination of the
visible free water flow together with a substantial
contribution flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels
that underlie the river and its floodplain called the hyporheic zone.
For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may greatly exceed the visible flow. The hyporheic zone often forms a dynamic interface between surface water and
true ground-water receiving water from the ground water
when aquifers are fully charged and contributing water to
ground-water when ground waters are depleted. This is
especially significant in karst areas where pot-holes and
underground rivers are common.
GROUND WATERSub-surface water, or groundwater, is fresh
water located in the pore space of soil and
rocks. It is also water that is flowing within
aquifers below the water table. Sometimes it
is useful to make a distinction between subsurface water that is closely associated with surface water and deep sub-surface water in
an aquifer (sometimes called "fossil water").
Sub-surface water can be thought of in the
same terms as surface water: inputs, outputs
Desalination is an artificial process by which
saline water (generally sea water) is
converted to fresh water. The most common
desalination processes are distillation and
reverse osmosis. Desalination is currently
expensive compared to most alternative
sources of water, and only a very small
fraction of total human use is satisfied by
desalination. It is only economically practical
for high-valued uses (such as household and
industrial uses) in aridareas. The most
extensive use is in the Persian Gulf.
Several schemes have been proposed to make use of icebergs
as a water source, however to date this has only been done for novelty purposes. Glacier runof is considered to be surface water.
The Himalayas, which are often called "The Roof of the World", contain some of the most extensive and rough high altitude
areas on Earth as well as the greatest area of glaciers and
permafrost outside of the poles. Ten of Asia’s largest rivers flow from there, and more than a billion people’s livelihoods depend on them. To complicate matters, temperatures are rising...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document