Top-Rated Free Essay

Research Problem About Related Studies in Carinderia and Sari-Sari Stores

Good Essays
Effects
Several studies have examined the socioeconomic, medical, and psychological impact of pregnancy and parenthood in teens. Life outcomes for teenage mothers and their children vary; other factors, such as poverty or social support, may be more important than the age of the mother at the birth. Many solutions to counteract the more negative findings have been proposed. Teenage parents who can rely on family and community support, social services and child-care support are more likely to continue their education and get higher paying jobs as they progress with their education.[11]
Mother[edit]
Being a young mother in an industrialized country can affect one's education. Teen mothers are more likely to drop out of high school.[8] Recent studies, though, have found that many of these mothers had already dropped out of school prior to becoming pregnant, but those in school at the time of their pregnancy were as likely to graduate as their peers.[citation needed] One study in 2001 found that women who gave birth during their teens completed secondary-level schooling 10–12% as often and pursued post-secondary education 14–29% as often as women who waited until age 30.[12] Young motherhood in an industrialized country can affect employment and social class. Less than one third of teenage mothers receive any form of child support, vastly increasing the likelihood of turning to the government for assistance.[13] The correlation between earlier childbearing and failure to complete high school reduces career opportunities for many young women.[8] One study found that, in 1988, 60% of teenage mothers were impoverished at the time of giving birth.[14] Additional research found that nearly 50% of all adolescent mothers sought social assistance within the first five years of their child's life.[8] A study of 100 teenaged mothers in the United Kingdom found that only 11% received a salary, while the remaining 89% were unemployed.[15] Most British teenage mothers live in poverty, with nearly half in the bottom fifth of the income distribution.[16] Teenage women who are pregnant or mothers are seven times more likely to commit suicide than other teenagers.[17] Professor John Ermisch at the institute of social and economic research at Essex University and Dr Roger Ingham, director of the centre of sexual health at Southampton University – found that comparing teenage mothers with other girls with similarly deprived social-economic profiles, bad school experiences and low educational aspirations, the difference in their respective life chances was negligible.[18]
Teenage motherhood may actually make economic sense for young women with less money, some research suggests. For instance, long-term studies by Duke economist V. Joseph Hotz and colleagues, published in 2005, found that by age 35, former teen moms had earned more in income, paid more in taxes, were substantially less likely to live in poverty and collected less in public assistance than similarly poor women who waited until their 20s to have babies. Women who became mothers in their teens — freed from child-raising duties by their late 20s and early 30s to pursue employment while poorer women who waited to become moms were still stuck at home watching their young children — wound up paying more in taxes than they had collected in welfare.[19] Eight years earlier, the federally commissioned report "Kids Having Kids" also contained a similar finding, though it was buried: "Adolescent childbearers fare slightly better than later-childbearing counterparts in terms of their overall economic welfare."[citation needed]
According to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, nearly 1 in every 4 teen mothers will experience another pregnancy within two years of having their first.[20] Pregnancy and giving birth significantly increases the chance that these mothers will become high school dropout and as many as half have to go on welfare.[21] Many teen parents do not have the intellectual or emotional maturity that is needed to provide for another life. Often, these pregnancies are hidden for months resulting in a lack of adequate prenatal care and dangerous outcomes for the babies.[22] Factors that determine which mothers are more likely to have a closely spaced repeat birth include marriage and education: the likelihood decreases with the level of education of the young woman – or her parents – and increases if she gets married.[23]
Child[edit]
Early motherhood can affect the psychosocial development of the infant.The children of teen mothers are more likely to be born prematurely with a low birth weight, predisposing them to many other lifelong conditions.[20] The hardships do not stop at birth for these children. The children are at higher risk and are usually plagued by intellectual, language, and socio-emotional delays.[22] Developmental disabilities and behavioral issues are increased in children born to teen mothers.[24][25] One study suggested that adolescent mothers are less likely to stimulate their infant through affectionate behaviors such as touch, smiling, and verbal communication, or to be sensitive and accepting toward his or her needs.[24] Another found that those who had more social support were less likely to show anger toward their children or to rely upon punishment.[26]
Poor academic performance in the children of teenage mothers has also been noted, with many of them being more likely than average to fail to graduate from secondary school, be held back a grade level, or score lower on standardized tests.[8] Daughters born to adolescent parents are more likely to become teen mothers themselves.[8][27] A son born to a young woman in her teens is three times more likely to serve time in prison.[28]
Role of drug and alcohol use[edit]
Inhibition-reducing drugs and alcohol may possibly encourage unintended sexual activity. If so, it is unknown if the drugs themselves directly influence teenagers to engage in riskier behavior, or whether teenagers who engage in drug use are more likely to engage in sex. Correlation does not imply causation. The drugs with the strongest evidence linking to teenage pregnancy are alcohol, "ecstasy", cannabis, and amphetamines. The drugs with the least evidence to support a link to early pregnancy are opioids, such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, of which a well-known effect is the significant reduction of libido – it appears that teenage opioid users have significantly reduced rates of conception compared to their non-using, and alcohol, "ecstasy", cannabis, and amphetamine using peers. Amphetamines are often prescribed to treat ADHD – internationally, the countries with the highest rates of recorded amphetamine prescription to teenagers also have the highest rates of teenage pregnancy.[2][45][48][49] Leonard Sax, M.D., Ph.D., 2005, Doubleday books, p. 128
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Teens that have become pregnant have found it difficult to continue with education. Now being the mother, instead of the child, it is a hard role adjustment. Balancing school, homework, friends and diapers to most is very disheartening and the young mothers tend to give up, and quit school. If there is a good support system to the teen mother, continuing education and other life opportunities are put on hold and possibly never found again.…

    • 852 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    So many teens today are becoming parents. When I was in school their were a few girls that were pregnant, but most of the teenagers cared more about shopping, and going to parties. I look at high school kids today so many are pregnant or already had babies. I believe teenage pregnancy is one of the top reasons teens drop out of school. In the article “Teenage Pregnancy Is a Serious Problem” written by Kristin Moore and Barbara Sugland, they state that “the children of teenage parents often do poorly in school.” With a lack of education limits teens employment possibility, which effects how well they will be able to take care of their self and child. Teen pregnancy is just one of the consequences for having sex at an early…

    • 869 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Hispanic Sex Education

    • 10143 Words
    • 41 Pages

    Research shows that babies born to teen mothers are more likely to be born underweight than babies born to mothers over age 20; 7 percent of pregnant teens receive no prenatal care. Teen pregnancy often creates a cycle of poverty, crime and further teen pregnancy. Research has shown that sons of teen mothers are 2.7 times more likely to go to prison than sons of women that had children after the age of 20, as well as children of teenage mothers are twice as likely to be abused and neglected as children born to women over the age of 20(Redelmeier, Rozin & Kahneman,…

    • 10143 Words
    • 41 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Being an un-married and pregnant teenager can be an incredibly challenging and scary experience especially if that child does not have a support structure. The national Campaign to prevent teen and planned pregnancy (NCPTP) reports that 3 out of every 10 children under the age of 20 become pregnant at least once, and 67% of those new families are in poverty, of which 52% are on welfare (“the national”, n.d). Being a teenage mother comes with a plethora of issue for the individual and for society.…

    • 689 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Teen Vs Adult

    • 1049 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Teen years are some of the most important years of your life. Being pregnant as a teen, it is more likely that you are not stable and still immature. Taking care of another life can be very difficult because babies need you at all times. Being a parent in your teen years means you are going to have to drop almost everything you do and change your ways of life. The lifestyle of an adult and a teen are completely different. Maintaining a baby and school can get very stressful, leading the teen to drop out of high school. Without a high school diploma, that means a lower paying job, and low-income. Having a child is very expensive and without the financial stability you need to have, it does not provide a stable family. Also, with the education cut short, a teenage mother may lack job skills making it hard for her to find and keep a job. Being able to provide diapers, healthy food, clothing, and medical bills get very costly.…

    • 1049 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    English Annotated Bib

    • 888 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The fourth source by the Office Of Adolescent Health has a strong and detailed overview of teen pregnancy and childbearing. I found this source through University of Alabama Scout search engine and the audience is the general public. The source includes statistics from 2013 that 273,000 babies were born in the US from females ages 15-19. The text also mentions the sad reality that comes along with teenage pregnancy such as, mother and teen less likely to finish school, more likely to rely on public assistance, more likely to live in poverty as adults, and more likely to have children who has poorer education, behavioral, and health outcomes throughout their lives rather than a child born into older parents that are prepared for a child. Along with addressing the issues of teen pregnancy, the source also touches on strategies and approaches to prevent unwanted teen pregnancies such as the contraceptive method I talk about in my paper. This information adds to my paper because it demonstrates the problems with teen pregnancy and the steps the US can take to lower the teenage pregnancy rates.…

    • 888 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Unit 8 Discussion

    • 356 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Getting pregnant as a teenager gives you a higher risk of running into the social aspects and economical issues that surround today’s teenage parents. Although the rate of teenage pregnancy is higher among low income African-Americans and Hispanics, especially those in inner city, the number of births to teenagers is highest among white, non-poor young women who live in small cities and towns. (Calhoun 309)…

    • 356 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    tribulations these teens are facing. “The National Campaign says that fewer than half ever graduate from high school, and only 2% earn college degrees by age 30” (Docksai, 2010). Many of these teens are not thinking about the negative effects of being a mother between the ages of 15-20, and there are a bunch of them. Some of these outcomes include “school drop out, strain on public health and welfare systems, low-birth weight babies, increased medical costs, poverty, stunted workforce development, child abuse and neglect, and developmental delays and disabilities among infants and children” (Rosell, Scarborough, Lewis, 2010). It is said that “young girls who have children, often before completing their education, are less likely to marry and more likely to have additional children than those who delay parenting to a later age” (Sawhill, 2006). From seeing shows like 16 and Pregnant and Teen Mom on MTV, it is not hard to witness the truths of what some of these young women go though. There have been many of the teens on the show that have trouble with school or have had to drop out. A lot of them also face major money issues because they themselves cannot hold a job while raising their child. Teens are not thinking about the consequences they will encounter in the long run, and it is causing a huge dilemma. Although there are still troubles with teenage pregnancy, there are people out there who are putting forth effort to help the social problem. Countless organizations are beginning to show up and attempt in helping these teens. There is a group that started in Austin, Texas called The Tandem Teen Prenatal and Parenting Program. “Tandem has been effective in improving the health and well-being of teenage parents and their children and has more than halved the national subsequent pregnancy rate of 24% among its clients by more then half” (Rosell, Scarborough, Lewis, 2010). Tandem is trying to help in improving the lives of the teen parents who do not have much help…

    • 370 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Lack of Parental Guidance

    • 479 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Teenage pregnancy facts state that roughly 95% of teenage pregnancies are unintended. Teenage mothers usually do not have an easy life after their pregnancy; many researchers argue that women who experience teenage pregnancy do not have easy lives even before they become pregnant. Teenage pregnancy facts show that both before and after their pregnancy, adolescent mothers are more likely to have low family incomes; they are actually more likely to be poor and on welfare. Indeed, the poorer the adolescent, the more likely she is to become pregnant. Adolescent mothers are less educated than women who wait until at least 20 to have a baby, they are less likely to be married and their children are more likely to have developmental problems.…

    • 479 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Teen pregnancy is one of the biggest problems in this country. Childbearing teenagers cost American taxpayers nearly 10.9 billion dollars each year. Also children who are born from teen mothers also experienced a wide range of problems such as higher risk for low birth weight and infant mortality, have fewer skills and be less prepared to learn when they enter kindergarten and have behavioral problems and chronic medical conditions. Whereas only 50 percent of teen mothers have received a high school diploma and only 30 percent have earned a General Education Development (GED) certificate. From 1996 to 2006 Arizona teenagers were an average of 21.5 percent over the national average in childbirths.…

    • 391 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Past literature on teen pregnancy and childbearing are often embedded in the assumption that having a child is a main gateway in leading teen mothers toward a troubled life of socioeconomic disadvantage (Cooksey, 1990; Cote & Allahar, 1994). However, as this paper will attempt to show, many of the central issues surrounding teenage childbearing have many contributing factors to such disadvantage. This paper reviews the developing body of literature that examines the socioeconomic consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. Throughout this literature, researchers try to disentangle the circumstances that predispose a woman to have a teen birth from circumstances that result from teen pregnancy. Women who give birth as teenagers are shown to have many similarities, in terms of family background and education, prior to becoming pregnant. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand how socioeconomic factors are related to the incidence of teen pregnancy and how the negative consequences of teen pregnancy are linked to socioeconomic…

    • 3329 Words
    • 14 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Teen mothers, fathers, and their children face social and economic disadvantages throughout their lives. Teen mothers have higher rates of low birth weight babies and infant mortality than mothers in their 20s. They are more likely to live in poverty as well as rely on public assistance, and approximately 38% only will likely finish high school.…

    • 693 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    In 2012, there were 305,388 babies born to teen mothers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Although this is, a smaller number than previous years it is still an alarming amount. Becoming a teen mother can lead to many hardships for both, the mother and the infant. According to Weiss (2010), babies born to teen mothers are at risk for premature birth, which could lead to hyper activity, respiratory problems, blindness, deafness, mental retardation and possibly death. Children of teens also, show a trend in repeating, by becoming teen mothers themselves, dropping out of high school, and is at a higher risk for other risky behaviors. Many factors are contributed to the amount of teen mothers, most prevalent is teens with a lower socioeconomic status, and being a…

    • 1850 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Teen Pregnancy

    • 2129 Words
    • 9 Pages

    Among the numerous social problems that can occur in adolescence, two problems- teen pregnancy and academic failure are major concerns as a result of their consequences. A lot of the times when teenagers become pregnant, many drop out of school. The issue is teen mothers are giving up on continuing their education because of the lack of opportunity and support. For this reason, school dropout rates are on the rise. There are many teenage girls with no support. No help from partner, family and friends, or school. According to the study of Perrin & Dorman (2001), ‘‘the hardest thing about being a teen mother is the isolation.’’ Moreover, they often do not achieve the qualifications they need to progress into further education, and in some cases, have difficulties finding childcare and other support they need to participate in education or employment. Consequently, teen mother’s struggle trying to obtain or balance an education while also in the process of providing care for a child. Finding ways to help improve the outcome of teen mothers today is of high importance. Teen mothers need support, it is essential to provide them with resources that will help them to succeed as a mother and as well as a student.…

    • 2129 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Teen Pregnancy Paper

    • 575 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Teen pregnancy also affects the mother's life when they have the baby, and for the rest of their life. Teen mothers are at a higher risk of developing postpartum depression which can interfere with healthy teenage development. Without the support of parents who disapprove, teens can feel isolated and are less likely to eat well, excersise, and get enough sleep. Also, juggling school and a baby can be difficult. Pregnancy is the leading reason teen girls drop out of school. Less then 50% of teen mothers ever graduate from highscool and less than 2% get their college degree. Without a diploma or degree, many job oppourtunities are closed.…

    • 575 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays