This chapter contains the significance of the study, the statement of the problem, the group hypothesis, the scope & limitation, the theoretical framework and definition of terms.
The Problem and Its Background
Pre-marital sex is a sexual intercourse engaged by persons who are not married. It is a mortal sin in Christianity for the reason it is against the Law of Moses: Thou shall not commit adultery. In some countries (particularly in Asian countries that practice Christianity), they banned pre-marital sex in order to prevent unwanted pregnancy, prostitution and abortion. The importance of this study is to let the people know the following problems and their answers/reasons behind pre-marital sex.
Significance of the Study
The research aims to know the causes and effects of pre-marital sex for teens and adults ages 13 to 25 within Paco Area. This study will systematically investigate the nature behind pre-marital sex and the reasons behind it.
Statement of the Problem
The study seeks to answer the following questions:
•What are the factors that cause pre-marital sex?
•What are the possible and actual results of pre-marital sex? •What influences adults and teens to engage in pre-marital sex? •Who influences adults and teens to engage in pre-marital sex? •Why do they continuously engage in pre-marital sex with many different partners? ; and •What reasonable advice can you give to the people who engage in pre-marital sex? Hypothesis
We think that media exposure such as pornography is one of the factors why adults and teens are engaging into these kinds of unhealthy habits. Another factor is alcoholism, the more alcohol involved the higher the possibility to engage in pre-marital sex because alcohol has often been considered to be a powerful facilitator. Parent’s lack of guidance for their children and bad influence from friends are also one of the main reasons why they engage into pre-marital sex. The usual results in engaging to it includes AIDS, HIVS, unwanted pregnancy, prostitution and repeat of sexual intercourse with others or "sex addict".
Scope and Limitation
This study limits only the ages 13-25 within Paco Area.
In order for the researchers to fully understand this case study, they adopted the Social Learning Theory proposed by Albert Bandura.
Social Learning Theory
The Social Learning Theory proposed by Albert Bandura becomes perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. (Cherry, 2010) Social Learning Theory explains about how environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior. It focuses on the learning that occurs within a “social context”. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling. (Abbott, 2007) This theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. (Cherry, 2010) In exploring the greater depth of this theory there are four types of concepts. First, is people can learn through observations, second is mental states are important to learning, lastly, learning does not necessarily lead to change in behavior. (Bandura, 2007) Behavior can also influence both the environment and the person, this is called reciprocal causation. Each of the three variables: environment, person, behavior influence each other. (Bandura, 2007)
This model shows an individual learner is affected by observing the environment, directly or indirectly. According to Bandura, people can learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. But Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction and sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. Moreover, while behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors. (Cherry, 2010) Self-efficiency means learners self-confidence towards learning. People are more likely to engage in certain behaviors when they believe they are capable of implementing those behaviors successfully, this mean that they have high self-efficacy. (Bandura, 2007) Self-regulation is when the individual has his own ideas about what is appropriate or inappropriate behavior and chooses action accordingly. There are several aspects of self-regulation. (Bandura, 2007) Modeling means doing what others do. There are different types of models. •Live model: and actual person demonstrating the behavior. •Symbolic model: a person or character portrayed in a medium such as television, videotape, computer programs, or a book. •Imitation: An individual uses another person’s behavior as a discriminative stimulus for an imitative response. The observer is then reinforced in some way for display imitation. An individual uses another person’s behavior as a discriminative stimulus for an imitative response. The observer is then reinforced in some way for display imitation. (Bandura, 2007) When your behavior is acceptable it is considered as “vicarious reinforcement”. When your behavior is unacceptable it is considered as “vicarious punishment”. (Bandura, 2007)
Definition of Terms
In order for the researchers to fully understand their study, they have used different terms and definition to be easily understood by the readers. These terms are established while doing the research and some are shared meanings by the participants and from other sources of the study.
Abstinence the fact or practice of restraining oneself from
indulging in something, typically alcohol.
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal
or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or
embryo before viability.
Adultery voluntary sexual relations between an individual who is married and someone
who is not the individual’s spouse. Aids a disease in which there is a severe loss of the
body's cellular immunity, greatly lowering the
resistance to infection and malignancy.
Alcoholism an addiction to the consumption of alcoholic
liquor or the mental illness and compulsive
behavior resulting from alcohol dependency.
Casual Sex/Premarital Sex is a sexual activity between two people who are not yet married.
Chastity the practice of refraining from extramarital, or especially from all, sexual intercourse.
Facilitator one that helps to bring about an outcome by providing indirect or unobtrusive assistance.
HIV a condition in humans in which progressive
failure of the immune system allows life-
threatening opportunistic infections and cancers
Intimacy an intimate act, especially sexual intercourse.
Lust very strong sexual desire.
Oral Sex sexual activity in which the genitals of one
partner are stimulated by the mouth of the other. Pleasure give sexual enjoyment or satisfaction to.
Pornography is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the
purpose of sexual arousal.
Prostitution the practice or occupation of engaging in
sexual activity with someone for payment.
Reproduction the production of offspring by a sexual or
Sex is the act of having sexual intercourse.
Sex Addict is best described as a progressive intimacy
disorder characterized by compulsive sexual
thoughts and acts.
Sexual Intercourse is chiefly the insertion and thrusting of a male’s penis, into a female’s vagina for the purposes of sexual pleasure or reproduction.
Taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is too sacred for
ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat
of supernatural punishment.