• a short piece of
writing where a writer
has to provide his
views on a topic.
A RESEARCH PAPER
• a lengthy piece of writing
where deeper level of
knowledge is required, and
the student has to support
his viewpoint citing the
works of earlier experts.
• Requires getting information
and collecting facts and
figures from various sources
to be able to cite them in
support of your view point.
HOW CAN WE START OUR
• Watch the video and take notes:
SELECTION OF THE
This may be the answer to your research
question and/or a way to clearly state the
purpose of your research.
topic you are
If your topic is too
broad, you will find too
much information and
not be able to focus.
You will often begin with a word,
develop a more focused interest in
an aspect of something relating to
that word, then begin to have
questions about the topic.
topic as a
Look for words that best describe your
Make a list of
Background reading can help
you choose and limit the
scope of your topic.
It is important to know that …
Specific topics are usually better than general topics.
General topic: The effects of sleep deprivation
Better topic: The effects of sleep deprivation on health
Even better topic: The effects of sleep deprivation on
women's heart health.
• State your topic as a question – this is the question your research will answer. For example:
• Research Topic: The effects of sleep deprivation on
• Research Question: To what extend does sleep deprivation lead to an increased risk of heart disease in women?
SELECTING A TOPIC
What is a research question?
• A research question is a clear, focused, concise,
complex and arguable question around which you
center your research. You should ask a question
about an issue that you are genuinely curious
EXAMPLE OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• Unclear: Why are social networking sites harmful?
• Clear: How are online users experiencing or addressing
privacy issues on such social networking sites as MySpace
• The unclear version of this question doesn’t specify which social networking sites or suggest what kind of harm the sites are causing. It also assumes that this “harm” is proven and/or accepted. The clearer version specifies sites (MySpace and
Facebook), the type of harm (privacy issues), and who the
issue is harming (users). A strong research question should
never leave room for ambiguity or interpretation.
CREATING AN OUTLINE
• The purpose of an outline is to help you think
through your topic carefully and organise it
logically before you start writing.
State the question
II. State your thesis statement
• It introduces the topic being researched.
• The introduction contains:
Four or five:
• It should be relatively brief, concise and clear.
• The thesis statement and the supporting sentences
provide the background information the reader needs
about the topic.
• An introduction doesn't explain findings in detail. It
provides the setup for the paper.
FORMULATION OF THE
• “A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative explanation of the research problem, a possible outcome of the
research, or an educated guess about the research
outcome.”(Sarantakos, 1993: 1991)
In other words, hypotheses are
tentative statements of the expected
relationships between two or more
Please join StudyMode to read the full document