research methodology

Topics: Research, Scientific method, Proposals Pages: 11 (1472 words) Published: February 25, 2014
Research Methods-CC495
2014
How to Write a Research Proposal?

Proposal Writing
• A Research proposal is
– a short document designed to express your
intentions and future plans for research
– a reasoned, systematic research plan that include
the gaps that you want to fill by your approach
and how you will handle them.
– similar in a number of ways to a project
proposal;
• however, a research proposal addresses an
academic or scientific research.

1

Proposal writing …. cont’d
Elements of a proposal
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Title
Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Purpose/Objective of the study
Literature review
Approach /Methods and procedures

VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI
XII.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Significance of the Study/expected benefits/limitations
Duration and plan of action
Cost
References
Appendixes

Proposal writing …. cont’d
Title
– An obviously important part of the process.
– You need to engage the reader with a short,
relevant title that clearly demonstrates what
the problem is and why this is important.

2

Proposal writing …. cont’d
Introduction
– Provides readers with the background information for
the research reported in the paper.
– Establishes a framework for the research, so that
readers can understand how it is related to other
research
– In an introduction, you should
• create reader interest in the topic,
• lay the broad foundation for the problem that
leads to the study,
• place the study within the larger context of the
scholarly literature, and
• reach out to a specific audience.

Proposal writing …. cont’d
• Statement of the Problem
– A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in
the literature, theory, or practice that leads to a need
for the study”
– It is important in a proposal that the problem stand
out—that the reader can easily recognize it.
– Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems
are masked in an extended discussion.
– In such cases, reviewers and/or committee members
will have difficulty recognizing the problem.

3

Proposal writing …. cont’d
• Effective problem statements answer the question
– “Why does this research need to be conducted.”
• If a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly and succinctly, then the statement of the problem will
come off as ambiguous.
• Make sure to state the problem in terms intelligible to
someone who is generally sophisticated but who is
relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation.

Proposal writing …. Cont’d
Purpose/Objective of the study
• “The purpose statement should provide a specific and
accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study”
• Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the
research.
• Describe the hypotheses to be tested or the questions to be raised (if any)
• Try to incorporate a sentence that begins with
– “The purpose of this study is . . .”

• Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study.

4

Proposal writing …. Cont’d
Literature review
– The review of the literature provides the background
and context for the research problem.
– Establishes the need for the research and indicate
that the writer is knowledgeable about the area
– Demonstrate to the reader that you have a
comprehensive grasp of the field and are aware of
important recent substantive and methodological
developments.

– the literature review should be generally brief and to
the point.

Proposal writing …. Cont’d
• Methods and Procedures
– This is the heart of the research proposal.
– The activities should be described with as much detail
as possible
– Indicate the methodological steps you will take to
answer every question or to test every hypothesis
illustrated in the Purpose of the study
• Clearly describe
– The sampling techniques
– Data collection instruments
– Data collection plan
– Specify the procedures you will use to analyze the
data...
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