Topics: Memory, Memory processes, Psychology Pages: 9 (1236 words) Published: October 2, 2014

Classical Conditioning ( John B Watson)

1.) Conditioned Emotional Response: (CER) Classical conditioning of emotional psychology

E. Classical Behaviorism
Watson & Rayner  CER in infants (little albert B.)
A.) UCS= loud noise (strike hammer one steel bar)
B.) UCR= fear
C.) CS= White rat (neutral stimulus)

Operant Conditions
A.) Psychology strengthened or weakened on the consequences that follow it B.) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
C.) Basic components in operant conditioning
1. Operant Psychology: Response that is shaped by its consequences (either reinforcement or punishment) 2. Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the psychology that follows a.) Positive Reinforcement: Pleasant Stimulus that strengthens a psychology rewards (food, smile, $) b.) Negative Reinforcers: Unpleasant stimulus that, when removed, will strengthen a psychology  (-) reinforcement (pain, boredom) ex: seatbelts c.) Punishment: Any aversive event that weakens the psychology that follows it 3. Punishment

b.) Effectiveness of Punishment
1. Punishment may have undesirable side affects (children associate punishment with just you) 2. Punishment must be administered immediately after the response and each time the response occurs (babysitter telling kids “wait till your parents get home” doesn’t work) 3.Punishment without explanation is not effective

10/18/12 Social Learning Theory

Memory: Remembering

A. The Persistence of learning over time ( read about the anatomy of memory in book “hippocampus” – area of brain where azhletimers diseases attacks)

Models of memory

A. Encoding: Process of coding and putting information into memory 3. Context Dependent Memory: Memory is best when people are in the same environment

c. Storage
1.) Multi- Store Model
a.) Sensory Memory: Brief memory store of immediate sensory information 1.) Iconic Memory: Momentary memory if visual information
2.) Echoic Memory: Memory of auditory information
A.) Short Term Memory: (Working memory): Brief store of information (which is either processed further or forgotten) B.) Capacity: STM can hold about 5-9 units of meaningful information Magic number 7+-2

C.)Long Term Memory: Vast storage of memory
D.) Retrieval: Process of recovering information from storage 1. Two Step Theory of Retrieval
a) Recall: Generate information and Recognize information as correct (essay exam) b) Recognition: Recognize correct information (multiple choice exam)


3. Exceptional Cases of Retrieval
a.) Flashbulb Memory: Seemingly frozen memory of an important event 1.) Factors that influence flashbulb memories
Emotion of event
Knowledge that the event is historically significant
b.) Eidetic Memory: Capacity to store mental images for longer than average periods of time c.) Memorists (Expert Memory): Someone with exceptional retrieval skills. Forgetting
A. Failure to retrieve info stored in LTM
B. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885)

Theories Of Forgetting
A.) Memory Decay: Time alone is responsible for forgetting
B.) Interference Theory: Forgetting is due to the (-) influence of competing information 1.) Retroactive inference (RI): New information interferes w/old memories 2.) Proactive interference (PI): Old memories interfere w/ new memories 3.) Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (TOT)

C.) Reconstructive Memory: Tendency to reconstruct (and even distort) memory 1. Method Of Serial Reproduction (Barlett, 1932)
2. Eyewitness Testimony (Elizabeth F, Loftus)
a.) Racial bias and stereotypes
b.) Loftus and Palmer (1974)
A. Pure memory loss, often w/out any damage to other cognitive functions C. Types of Amnesia
1. Anterograde Amnesia: Instability to remember information after a trauma  encoding failure 2. Retrograde Amnesia: Inability to remember events that took place before the trauma  retrieval failure

module 17-21 20 questions

psychology of memory 22-26: 20 questions

Cognition: 27-79...
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