Research

Topics: Criminology, Crime, Juvenile delinquency Pages: 7 (1999 words) Published: July 13, 2013
(I) Proposed Title
(II) Introduction
(III) Brief Literature Review
Environmental Variables and Crime
Rational Choice
Crime Prevention Through Environment Design (CPTED)
(IV) Methodology
Participant Observation
Individual Interviews
Community Observation
Analysis of Official/Unofficial Statistic
(V) Proposed Research Time-Table
(VI) References
(I) Proposed Title
The Relationship between Juvenile Delinquency
and Environmental Variables in New Town, Tuen Mun
(II) Introduction
The problem of juvenile delinquency in Tuen Mun's new town' has become more and more alarming in recent years. According to recent police statistics, the figure of 662 recorded juvenile arrests in Tuen Mun was the highest among all police d istricts in the territory in the first half of 1996. Such figures raise public c oncern about the occurrence of juvenile delinquency in the context of planned ho using in the new towns. A number of questions arise, such as: " Why does Tuen Mu n suffer more Juvenile Delinquency than other places? " ; " Is the environment o f Tuen Mun more favorable for Juvenile Delinquency than other places? " and " Ho w far do the environmental features influence the chances of delinquency occurri ng? ". Hence, the following hypothesis will be examined in my proposed study: " The environment of Tuen Mun's new town invites and provides more opportunities for juveniles to commit delinquency than other new towns and urban areas of HK. "

I will compare juvenile delinquency in Tuen Mun's new town with two other areas in order to make the study more interesting. The first area, also a new town, is Tseung Kwan O, which has similar environmental features to Tuen Mun. The second area, Kowloon City, is an urban district and has different characteristics to T uen Mun.

I will employ the "environmental perspective" in my study in order to attempt to explain the nature of juvenile delinquency. In addition, the related "situation al crime prevention" approach which focuses on the "rational choice" of offender s will also be critically used to supplement an understanding of the factors inv olved in juvenile delinquency.

The following proposal presents the "What" and "How" of my study. Using the "env ironmental" approach to study juvenile delinquency is a novel attempt in Hong Ko ng; therefore, I will rely on the ideas and methods developed in the west by, fo r example, Newman(1972), the Brantingham(1990) and Clarke and Felson(1993). (III) Brief Literature Review

Environmental Variables and Crime
The work of the pre-world war II Chicago researchers Shaw and Mcay made a major contribution to criminology by developing the "Ecological" approach to the under standing of the interaction between society and environment in crime causation. They theorized about social relations, urban social structure and their relation ship with crime. Their study "Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas"(1942) showed that high crime areas usually straddled the industrial zone which was character ized by very high rates of residential turnover and low rates of home ownership. Shaw and McKay explained this phenomenon by the theory of "social disorganizati on". In short, they argued that differences in delinquency rates between areas w as correlated with environmental variables like housing conditions, demographic stability and ethnic/social status.

Later, a geographer Davidson (1981) tried to give a full explanation for the rel ationship between environmental variables and crime. He classified environment i nto two categories-- physical environment and social environment. Physical envir onment referred to the structure and design of an area. For example, parks, leis ure grounds, street patterns, commercial complexes and centers are the basic com ponents of the physical environment. Social environment referred to a set of con texts which form the basis for social interaction outside the home such as schoo l, recreation and neighborhood. Davidson's study...

References: 1. Beavon, D.J.(1984) Crime and Environmental Opportunity Structure: The Influen
ce of Street Networks on the Patterning of Property Offenses Unpublished master '
2. Brantingham, P.J.and Brantingham,P.L.(1990) Environmental Criminology. Prospe
ct Heights,IL: Waveland.
3. Clarke, R.V.(1983) "Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and P
ractical Scope" in M
4. Clarke, R.V.and Felson, M.(1993) Routine Activity and Rational Choice; Advanc
es in Criminology Theory (Vol.5) New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
5. Davidson, R.N.(1981) Crime and Environment London: Croom Helm.
6. Felson, M.(1994) Crime and Everyday Life: Insights and Implications for Socie
ty Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.
7. Jacobs,J.(1961) Death and Life of Great American Cities New York: Random Hous
e.
8. Newman, O. (1972) Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design New
York: Macmillan.
9. Newman, O. (1980) Community of Interest Garden City, NY: Anchor.
11. Taylor, R.B. and Harrell, A.V. (1996) Physical Environment and Crime U.S.A.:
National Institute of Justice.
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