Reproduction System Notes

Topics: Menstrual cycle, Estrogen, Endometrium Pages: 2 (482 words) Published: December 2, 2014
Reproduction
Prostaglandines: DON’T come from the prostate gland. Come from the seminal vesicles. Cause muscle contractions
Found in ejaculate
Prostate gland
Produce enzymes
Produces buffers that buffer urine in urethra and the acidic environment in the vagina Contains anticoagulant enzymes that keep the enzymes from coagulating Erectile tissue (aka spongy tissue) has sinuses in it that fill with blood, causing the penis to erect Some animals have a bone in their penis called a baculum (not humans) Retrograde ejaculation: when the bladder does not close off during ejaculation, causing sperm to go up into the bladder Retractory period

Figure 46.14
Hormone roles in men
Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) which tells the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH Control of hormones in the male is through negative feedback Testosterone is important for the masculizing of males early in fetal development Testosterone is related to aggression in animals

Female Reproduction
Ovary
2 ovaries, one on either side of the uterus
Follicle= egg + granulosa cell (follicle cell)
Granulosa cells make hormones estrogen and progesterone
Figure 46.12
When a female is born all of her eggs are arrested in prophase of meiosis 1 Every month about 13 eggs begin to continue meiosis .
When the egg is ovulated it goes all the way to metaphase 2 then stops Break down of cyclin allows meiosis to complete
Uterus
Lining is called endometrium
Functional layer: layer that comes of during menstruation

Vagina
Opening to female reproductive tract
Clitoris
Has spongy tissue that fills with blod during arousal
Menstrual cycle
Only occurs in humans, apes, and old world monkeys
Other animals have an estrus cycle
These animals are only receptive to males when they are at the right point of their estrus cycle Not always monthly
2 parts: ovarian cycle and uterine cycle
Hormone involvement
Hypothalamus releases GRH to anterior pituitary causing it...
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