What is HPV infection?
Human papilloma virus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are at least 100 different types and more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. HPV can cause serious health problems, including genital warts (verrucae) and certain cancers. There is no certain way to tell who will develop health problems from HPV and who will not. In most cases HPV goes away by itself before it causes any health problems, and most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it. HPV is not the same as herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). Both viruses can be passed on during sex, but they have different symptoms and cause different health problems.
HPV Types and Associated Conditions
Most people infected with HPV never develop any symptoms. However, there are a number of conditions that can result from an HPV infection. The following table lists some of these conditions along with their associated type of HPV.
1, 2, 4,63
1, 2, 4, 26, 27, 29, 41, 57
3, 10, 27, 28, 41, 49
6, 11, 30, 40-45, 51, 54
16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58
16, 18, 34, 39, 42, 55
6, 11, 30
Over 15 types -
Focal epithelial hyperplasia (oral)
6, 7, 11, 16, 32 -
Common Warts-Rough, raised bumps that generally affect the fingers, hands and around the nails. In the majority of cases their only problem is their appearance. However, they may sometimes bleed; some patients may experience pain, but this is unusual. Plantar Warts-Small lesions that appear on the soles of the feet; they usually look like a cauliflower, with very small hemorrhages (petechiae) under the skin. When scratched they may bleed. Patients may feel pain when walking or standing. They can be similar to corns or calluses. Flat Warts-Slightly raised, flat-topped lesions which are darker than the skin around them. They may appear on the knees, elbows, wrists, hands, neck or face. Young adults, teenagers and younger children are usually affected Anogenital Warts-Small, flat cauliflower-like bumps, some may have stem-like protrusions. In females, the warts will usually appear on the vulva, but may also be found in the vagina, on the cervix, and near the anus. In males, they may appear on the penis, around the anus, and on the scrotum. They are rarely painful and do not typically cause discomfort.
II. MODE OF TRANSMISSION
How do people get HPV?
HPV is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact. HPV infections that cause skin warts (e.g., plantar or common warts) can be acquired through a cut, but the risk of transmission is low. Walking barefoot in public areas such as the gym or pool can be a risk for infection with the types of HPV that cause plantar warts.
HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected person has no signs or symptoms. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected, or that they are passing HPV on to a sex partner. A person can still have HPV, even if years have passed since he or she has had sexual contact with an infected person. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV. In rare circumstances, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass the HPV on to her baby during delivery.
III. SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS OF HPV INFECTION
Most HPV infections go unnoticed because they don't cause any symptoms.The virus may have been contracted years ago and it can remain in the body for weeks, years, or even a lifetime...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document