SUMMARY REPORT: CHAPTER 16
Leader: Christian Mat Soneja
Members: Arthur Dela Paz
The Definition of Logic by Its Formal Object
First we shall treat of the differentiation of the sciences by their formal objects. Then we shall apply to logic what we have said about the sciences in general.
1. SCIENCES ARE SPECIFIED BY THEIR OBJECTS
One act of knowledge differs from another act of knowledge because it is knowledge either of a different thing or of a different aspect of the same thing. For instance, our knowledge of a walrus is different from our knowledge of a triangle because a walrus differs from a triangle; and the knowledge a stonecutter has of a stone differs from the knowledge a geologist has of the same stone because each considers a different aspects of the stone.
The things a science considers—that is, the things as they are in themselves together with all their attributes—constitute its material object. Many sciences can have the same material object (or general subject matter); but each distinct science considers a distinct and special aspect of its material object. This special aspect is called the formal object of the science.
2. THE OBJECT OF LOGIC
We shall now state the material objects of logic, then the formal object, and then give the actual definition of logic in terms of its formal object. a. The Material Object
The material object of logic includes all things without exception. It includes all that the human mind can know, all that we can grasp by simple apprehension, judgment, and reasoning. Consequently, the material object of logic includes the material objects or all the other sciences. b. The Formal Object
In its formal object logic differs from all the other sciences. Metaphysics, the philosophy of God, the philosophy of human nature, and all the purely speculative sciences study real beings—God, man, the world, and so on—as they exist (or can exist)...
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