Renewable Energy in Malaysia

Topics: Tidal power, World energy resources and consumption, Renewable energy Pages: 14 (3828 words) Published: October 3, 2010
ORGANIZED BY UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL, BANGI, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA; 28-30 AUGUST 2006

Prospects for Ocean Energy in Malaysia
Omar Yaakob, Tengku Mohd Ariff Bin Tengku Ab Rashid, Mohamad Afifi Abdul Mukti Department of Marine Technology Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Skudai MALAYSIA Email: omar@fkm.utm.my

Keywords: alternative, renewable energy Abstract

European Union [4], the United States [5], [6] and Japan [7]. The energy can be extracted in the form of:

The ocean one of the most perpetual sources of energy and has already been exploited on a small scale. Some technologies are being developed to exploit the large potential of this energy source. This paper will focus on ocean energy as an alternative source in Malaysia. The current development of various devices to extract the ocean energy will be reviewed. Although technologies are currently being developed in the areas of tidal power, wave power, thermal energy gradient, current energy, winds and salinity gradient, not all of these are suitable for Malaysian sea areas. This paper surveys the available Malaysian oceanographic data and identifies the potential sources of energy.

• • • • •

Thermal Difference Tides Waves Ocean Current Salinity gradient

The concept being developed for each category will be briefly explained in the following sections. 2.1 Ocean Thermal Energy Ocean thermal energy is based on the principle of thermodynamics, that is useful work can be generated when a fluid can be kept at two different temperatures. In this case, temperature difference between the surface waters and colder waters found at ocean depths may reach 20 degrees Celcius; large enough to generate work through a turbine. Good descriptions of the system, called Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), are given in [8], [9] and [10]. Figure 1 shows a schematic view of the concept.

1. Introduction
The world energy consumption is always on the rise. Our continuing dependence on non-renewable/fossil sources will only aggravate the situation. Several studies have predicted that if we continue consuming at the current rate, some of these energy sources will be exhausted within a century or if not a few decades. In addition, environmental decays from release of pollutants are generating concern. Therefore, alternative sources of energy must be sought from sources that are not only renewable but also environmental friendly. The ocean which covers more than 70% of our planet is a huge reservoir of renewable energy. If properly exploited, this environmental friendly resources can contribute towards meeting the increasing global energy demand.

2. Sources of Ocean Energy
The potential of the ocean as a source of alternative energy is great. To underline this potential, a number of initiatives are being pursued by various governments, such as New Zealand [1], United Kingdom [2], Australia [3], Figure 1: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Concept [8] International Conference on Energy and Environment 2006 (ICEE 2006) International Conference on Energy and Environment 2006 (ICEE 2006) 62

ORGANIZED BY UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL, BANGI, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA; 28-30 AUGUST 2006

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There are three types of electricity conversion systems: closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid. closed-cycle systems use the ocean's warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid, which has a low-boiling point, such as ammonia. The vapor expands and turns a turbine. The turbine then rotates a generator to produce electricity. Open-cycle systems operating at low pressures actually boil the seawater. This produces steam that passes through a turbine/generator. A hybrid system combines both closedcycle and open-cycle systems. The system is most promising for areas with deep water not too far out from shore, such as small island states of the Pacific [9], [10]. 2.2 Tidal Power Tidal energy exploits the natural rise and fall of ocean surface caused...

References: [1] Zealand Energy Efficiency And Conservation authority, Marine Energy: Summary Of Current Developments And Outlook For New Zealand, May 2006 [2] UK Department Of Trade And Industry, Wave And Marine Current Energy: Status And Research And Development Priorities, DTI Report Number Fes-R132, 2003 [3] Sustainable Energy Development Office, Study Of Tidal Energy Technologies For Derby Government Of Western Australia, Report No.: Wa – 107384 - Cr-01, December 2001 [4] Centre For Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Wave Energy Utilization In Europe, Current Status And Perspectives, European Commission DirectorateGeneral For Research, 2002 [5] U.S. Department of the Interior, Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program, Washington May 2006 [6] U.S. Department of the Interior, Technology White Paper On Ocean Current Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program, Washington May 2006 [7] Japan Marine Science and Technology Centre, Research and Development Technology on Wave Energy Utilization, JAMSTEC, 2004. [8] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Homepage, http://www.nrel.gov/otec/, 12 July 2006, 1.30pm. [9] L. A. Vega, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), http://www.otecnews.org/ articles/vega/ 00_vega_otec_ovverview.html, 12 July 2006, 1.45pm. [10] South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversions and the Pacific Islands, SOPAC Report No 417, March2001.
Fossil Nuclear Wind Solar Hydro Wave Marine current Tidal Ocean Thermal Among all of the energy sources compared, the marine current energy shows the greatest potential. Although its capital cost is expected to be high, its merit lie in low running cost, minimal environmental impact, minimal visual impact and predictable.
Renewable Source
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ORGANIZED BY UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL, BANGI, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA; 28-30 AUGUST 2006
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[11] Tidal Power (Index of Resources), http:// freeenergynews.com/ Directory/Tidal/index.html, 16 July 2006, 10.00 am [12] Energetech 2006, Media Release: Port Kembla Trial Deployment Results, Nov. 2005. Available at www.energetech.com.au, 12 July 2006, 1.30pm. [13] S. Petroncini, R.W. Yemm, Introducing Wave Energy into the Renewable Energy Marketplace, www.oceanpd.com/PDFS/SimonaPetrocini-Paper.pdf, 12 July 2006, 1.35pm. [14] Ocean Power Delivery Ltd., “Media Release: Leading Wave Energy Company secures £13m Investment”. June 2006. Available at http://www.oceanpd.com/docs/ OPD%20Press%20 Release% 20June%2006.pdf, 13 July 2006, 11.00am. [15] Marine Current Energy, “www.worldenergy. org/wec-geis/publications/ reports/ser/marine/marine. asp”,14 July 2006, 10.00 am. [16] MCT Home, www.marineturbines.com/ home.htm, 13 July 2006, 12.00pm [17] National Geographic, Atlas of The World, Seventh Edition, page 100. [18] Malaysia Meteorological Service, Monthly Summary of Marine Meteorological Observation, 2000, Kuala Lumpur [19] Hydrographic Department, Malaysia Tides Table, Royal Malaysian Navy, Kuala Lumpur, 2002. [20] Omar Yaakob, Norazimar Zainuddin, Ramli Shariff, Developing Malaysian Ocean Wave Database Using Satellite Altimetry, 5th Regional Conference on Marine Technology, Johor Bahru, September 2004. [21] Ridham Upe, Pencerapan Data Hidraulik dan Persampelan Tanah Di Pesisiran Pantai Kg Salang, Pulau Tioman, Phan, Final Year Project Dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2000. [22] Paul Cooper and Oliver Kennedy, Development and Analysis of a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, 42nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Solar Energy Society, 1 - 3 December 2004, Perth.
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