renewable energy and climate change

Topics: World energy resources and consumption, Fossil fuel, Global warming Pages: 48 (31516 words) Published: October 23, 2014
1

Renewable Energy and
Climate Change
Coordinating Lead Authors:
William Moomaw (USA), Francis Yamba (Zambia)

Lead Authors:
Masayuki Kamimoto (Japan), Lourdes Maurice (USA), John Nyboer (Canada), Kevin Urama (Kenya/Nigeria), Tony Weir (Fiji/Australia)

Contributing Authors:
Thomas Bruckner (Germany), Arnulf Jäger-Waldau (Italy/Germany), Volker Krey (Austria/Germany), Ralph Sims (New Zealand), Jan Steckel (Germany), Michael Sterner (Germany), Russell Stratton (USA), Aviel Verbruggen (Belgium), Ryan Wiser (USA)

Review Editors:
Jiahua Pan (China) and Jean-Pascal van Ypersele (Belgium)

This chapter should be cited as:
Moomaw, W., F. Yamba, M. Kamimoto, L. Maurice, J. Nyboer, K. Urama, T. Weir, 2011: Introduction. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C.von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

161

Renewable Energy and Climate Change

Chapter 1

Table of Contents

Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 1.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

1.1.1

Introduction

1.1.2

The Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation

1.1.3

Climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

1.1.4

Drivers of carbon dioxide emissions

1.1.5

Renewable energy as an option to mitigate climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

1.1.6

Options for mitigation

1.1.7

Trends in international policy on renewable energy

1.1.8

Advancing knowledge about renewable energy

1.1.9

Metrics and definitions

1.2

Summary of renewable energy resources

1.2.1

Definition, conversion and application of renewable energy

1.2.2

Theoretical potential of renewable energy

1.2.3

Technical potential of renewable energy technologies

1.2.4

Special features of renewable energy with regard to integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

1.2.5

Energy efficiency and renewable energy

1.3

Meeting energy service needs and current status

1.3.1

Current renewable energy flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

1.3.2

Current cost of renewable energy

1.3.3

Regional aspects of renewable energy

162

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