REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN
Satellites monitoring Earth’s resources and natural disasters. Each satellite has different repeat pass frequency and spatial resolution (unless it belongs to the same series of satellites for the purpose of continuation of data flow with same specifications). Similarly, different satellites have different types of sensors on-board, such as, panchromatic, multispectral, infrared and thermal. All these sensors have applications in disaster mitigation, though depending on the electromagnetic characteristics of the objects on Earth and the nature of disaster itself. With a review of the satellites in orbit and their sensors the present work provides an insight to suitability of satellites and sensors to different natural disasters. For example, thermal sensors capture fire hazards, infrared sensors are more suitable for floods and microwave sensors can record soil moisture. Several kinds of disasters, such as, earthquake, volcano, tsunami, forest fire, hurricane and floods are considered for the purpose of disaster mitigation for Remote sensing and GIS reports. However, flood phenomenon has been emphasized upon in this study with more detailed account of remote sensing and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applicability. Examples of flood forecasting and flood mapping presented in this report illustrate the capability of remote sensing and GIS technology in delineating flood risk areas and assessing the damages after the flood recedes. With the help of a case study of the Upper Thames River watershed the use of remote sensing and GIS has been illustrated for better understanding. The case study enables the professionals and planning authorities to realize the impact of urbanization on river flows. As the urban sprawl increases with the increase of population, the rainfall and there snows melt reaches the river channels at a faster rate with higher intensity. In other words it can be inferred that through careful land use planning flood disasters can be mitigated.
What is Disaster Management?
• Discipline dealing with and avoiding risks
• Involves preparing, supporting, and rebuilding society when natural or manmade disasters occur
• Continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards
Why We Need Disaster Management?
• For Early Warning
• To foreseeing future disasters
• To Take prevention methods on reliable information
• To prohibit Natural disaster occurrence sources.
WHAT IS GIS?
← Geographic Information System (GIS) is computer based decision-making tool to plan, implement and govern the objects in space.
← An application methodology for location specific Planning
← GIS transforms data into information on spatial locations of entities that occupy space in the natural and built environment.
← Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a spatial database management system that can analyze, query and display data using digitized maps and tables for planning and decision-making (Anonymous).
Types of data use with GIS?
• Two types of data sources
– Primary data
• Data measured directly by surveys, field data collection, remote sensing – Secondary data
• Data obtained from existing maps, tables or other data sources WHAT IS SPATIAL DATA?
← 80% of all information held in databases anywhere in the world contains some kind of geographic element ← Information that has
← A location (spatial data)
← Values for a phenomena (attribute data)
← Additional information includes
← Spatial Data: Any entity that has location and can be shown on a map. E.g., Maps of States of India.
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