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Religion in the sixteen century, Wetern Europe, and England

By rubayetkamal May 17, 2015 1286 Words
Religion in the sixteen century
Religion was the engine that drove the French civil wars of the sixteenth century Huguenots (as the French Calvinists were called) came from all levels of society: artisans and shopkeepers hurt by rising prices and a rigid guild system; merchants and lawyers in provincial towns whose local privileges were tenuous; and members of the mobility The Catholic majority greatly outnumbered the Calvinist minority When King Henry II (1547-1559) was killed accidentally in a tournament, he was succeeded by a series of weak and neurotic sons, two of whom were dominated by their mother, Catherine de’ Medici (1519-1589) The wars erupted in 1562 when the powerful duke of Guise massacred a peaceful congregation of Huguenots at Vassy This massacre of Huguenots in August 1572 occurred at a time when the Catholic and Calbinist parties had apparently been reconciled through the marriage of the sister of the reigning Valois king, Charles IX and Henry of Navarre, the Bourbon ruler of Navarre The Guise family persuaded the king and his mother, Catherine de’ Medici, that this gathering of Huguenots posed a threat to them The massacre began early in the day on August 24 when the king’s guards sought out and killed some prominent Huguenots leaders The Huguenots rebuild their strength, and in 1576, the ultra-Catholics formed a ‘holy league’ The turning point in the conflict came in the War of the Three Henries in 1588-1589 Henry, duke of Guise, in the pay of Philip II of Spain, seize Paris and forced King Henry III to make him chief minister Henry of Navarre now claimed the throne

Realizing, however, that he would never be accepted by Catholic French, Henry took the logical way out and converted once again to Catholicism Nevertheless, the religious problem persisted until the Edict of Nantes was issued in 1598 King Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)

Philip tried to be the center of the whole government and supervised the work of all departments, even down to the smallest details One of Philip’s aims was to make Spain a dominant power in Europe Philip II, the most Catholic King became the champion of Catholicism throughout Europe, a role that led to spectacular victories and equally spectacular defeats of the Spanish king Turkish fleet in the battle of Lepanto in 1571

Though some inhabitants had adopted Lutheranism or Anabaptism, by the time of Philip II, Calvinism was also making inroads Philip II hoped to strengthen his control in the Netherlands, regardless of the traditional privileges of the separate provinces In 1573, Philip removed the duke of Alva and shifted to a more conciliatory policy to bring an end to the costly revolt

Western Europe

A goal seemingly realized in 1576 with the pacification of Ghent The next Spanish leader arrived in the Netherlands
Absolute monarchy or absolutism meant that the sovereignty power or the ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of the king. The king claimed the divine right of king. He is the highest authority. He only has to justify his actions to god. Of the chief the topologist of divine right monarch in the seventeenth century was the French theologian and court preacher bishop Jacques Bossuet Politics drawn from the very word of holy scripture – written Jacques Bossuet France during the reign of Louis XIV has traditionally been regarded as the best example of absolute monarch in the seventeenth century. Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys when they succeeded to the throne Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII’s chief minister

To reform and strength the central administration initially for financial reasons, sent the royal officials called intendants to the provinces to execute the central governments order. Richelieu died in 1642

Louis XIII succeeded but five months after riches death died. Louis XIII was succeeded by his son Louis XIV
The second Fronde was crushed by 1652 a task made easier when nobles bean fighting each other instead of the Mazarin Just a few decade after the king’s death, the great French writer Voltaire dubbed the period from 1661 to 1715 the ‘age of Louis XIV’ In October 1685, Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau

The cost of building Versailles and other places, maintaining his court, and pursuing his wars made finances a crucial issue of Louis XIV The court of Louis XIV at Versailles set a standard that was soon followed by other European rulers The ‘people of quality’ were expected to adhere to rigid standards of court etiquette appropriate to their rank Louise XIV became angry at dinner that he did not eat for the rest of the evening Louis waged four wars between 1667 and 1713

In 1667, Louis began his first war by invading the Spanish Netherlands Louis never forgave the Dutch for arranging the Triple Alliance Louis fourth war, the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713), was over bigger stakes, the succession to the Spanish throne At the end of the war, the peace of Utrecht came in 1713and of Rastatt in 1714 After two years of treaty, the Sun King was dead, leaving Franch impoverished and surrounded by enemies Philip II went bankrupt in 1596

During the reign of Philip III, many of the Spain’s weaknesses became apparent The reign of Philip IV seemed to offer hope for a revival
At the Battle of Rocroi in 1643, much of the Spanish army was destroyed England
Upon the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the Tudor dynasty became extinct The Stuart line of rulers was inaugurated
King James VI of Scotland became James I (1603-1625) of England Monarch and Parliament together ruled England as balanced polity The Puritans-protestants in the Anglican church inspired by Calvinist theology-wanted James to eliminate the episcopal system Many of the England’s gentry, mostly well-to-do landowners below the level of the nobility, had became Puritans Charles I passed the Petition of Right

From 1629-1640, Charles pursued a course of personal rule
The so-called Long Parliament took series of steps that placed svere limitation on royal authority Parliament proved victorious in the first phase of the English Civil War Most important Parliament success was the creation of the new model Army Parliament ended the first phase of the civil war with the capture of King Charles I in 1646 The army composed mostly of the more radical independents, who opposed Presbyterian church Cromwell and the army engaged in a second civil was

In 1649, Charles was beheaded
After death of Charles, the Rump Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and proclaimed England a republic or commonwealth Cromwell destroyed both king and Parliament
The army provided a new government when it drew up the instrument of Government, England’s first and only written constitution Oliver Cromwell died in 1658
Charles II returned to England
After restoration of monarchy, a new Parliamnet met in 1661 and restored the Anglican church as the official church of England Parliament passed the Test Act of 1673, specifying that only Anglican could hold military and civil offices The accession of James II virtually guaranteed a new crisis for England In 1687, he issued a new declaration of Indulgence, which suspended all laws barring Catholics and Dissenters from office England embarked on a ‘Glorious Revolution’ in 1688 by Mary James tried to subvert the constitution by breaking the original contract between king and people The Bill of Right did not settle the religious question

The Tolerance Act of 1689 granted Puritan Dissenters the right of free public worship Hobbes published Leviathan in 1651
The absolute ruler possessed unlimited power
John Locke viewed differently and argued against absolute rule Two Treatises of Government

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