THE UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA
Evil in World Religions
Of the Requirements of the Course RLGN 1440
October 30, 2014
Bruce Lincoln’s case study of the Revolutionary Exhumations In Spain and Heiko Henkel’s case study of Between Belief and unbelief lies in the performance of Salat: productively outlines the role of formalizations a means of creating and maintaining authority. Using the works of Bloch’s Symbols, Song, Dance and Features of articulation applying it to which roles are structured in an organization and the activities of the people are governed by rules and procedures through reality’s daily rituals.
A symbol is a representation of something, Song and Dance express the symbolism and linguistics direct and finalize it. Each has a persistent role to play into Formalization. Identifying each characteristic is done in forms. Formal Oratory is by physical speak of nothing but constricted sentences. The second linguistic form is referred to as intoning, this is associated to more of as a chant; first nations rituals. This third form results in singing. Along with most of these forms there is a physicality of dance strung into each symbol and meaning. These simplistic actions of formalization become a model of power or coercion. Through political and religious events formalization is able to withdraw a pull from our species; Choice of loudness turns to fixed loudness, Choice of intonation to extremely limited choice of intonation, all syntactic forms available to some syntactic forms excluded. Logic depends on the flexibility of the features of articulation in language and if the flexibility is non-existent the argument becomes non-existent, without logic, no reason, explanation, and no semantics. If formalized language or performance declines and disappears the influence and power leaves as well. The worth behind the symbolism is disintegrated.
Creating authority based on a formalization component is key in society. The Revolutionary Exhumations in Spain had a discourse and construction of society; creating a hierarchy of the social segmentation in the second Spanish republic. “Seizing the opportunity the workers now enacted their own extraordinary rituals- parades, rallies, and endless meetings of rapidly improvised committees; these were not only spontaneous celebration of a victory they had won, but simultaneously (and more important) an attempt to dismantle the bourgeois social, political and economic order and to construct a radically egalitarian, militantly solidary working-class society in its place.” Though it seems as if society is rebellious to proceed with such dramatic acts of revolution with the exhumations, the regimented formalization through practices and symbolism creates the authority toward putting society back into its place. It’s assumed in our culture (more of a social hidden rule) that the dead be treated with respect and not be disturbed .This was not the thoughts of some who proceeded with this source of rebellion. This reinforced social order even more because of such actions. Though this is informal within Spain’s population each individual turns to each other and naturally as mammals we result into a chain of command and demand order threw linguistics and eventually action if proven not bold enough. Such obscenity of corruption and profanity doesn’t go without punishment, that’s why the logic, reason and semantics are there.
Maintaining such authority is done in many ways of religious practice performed by Muslims in Turkey, such as the Salat, the five-time-daily prayer. This is one of the highest up held traditions. Henkel describes it as “The prayers dramatic smacking gesture of submission”. Looking at the dynamics of this ritual it in cooperates Symbols, Song, Dance and Features of articulation. The choreography of prayer is the formalization and is a means for...
Bibliography: MacKendrick, Kenneth. Guide for the Erudite Student 2014-2015
Bloch, Maurice. “Symbols, Song, Dance and Features of Articulation or is Religion an Extreme Form
Of Traditional Authority?” Archive europreennes de socialogie 15,
No. 1 (1474) :55-81
Licoln, Bruce. “Revolutionary Exhumations in Spain.” Discourse and the construction of
Society, 103-127. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Henkel, Heiko. “Between belief and unbelievable Lies of the Performance of
Salat: Meaning and Efficacy of a Muslim Ritual.” Journal of the Royal
Anthropological Institute 11 (2005): 487-507
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