Relative Clauses

Topics: Relative pronoun, Pronoun, Relative clause, English relative clauses / Pages: 15 (4102 words) / Published: Jun 3rd, 2015
ENGLISH GRAMMAR Relative Clauses

RELATIVE CLAUSES
INTRODUCTION
There are two types of relative clauses:
1. Defining relative clauses
2. Non-defining relative clauses
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
These describe the preceding noun in such a way to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential to clear understanding of the noun.
The boy who was playing is my brother.
Defining Relative Pronouns
SUBJECT
OBJECT
POSSESSIVE
For people
Who
Whom/Who
Whose
That
That
For things
Which
Which
Whose
That
That
Of which
Defining Relative Clauses: people
A. Subject: who or that
Who is normally used:
The man who robbed you has been arrested.
The girls who serve in the shop are the owner’s daughters.
But that is a possible alternative after all, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody and those:
Everyone who/that knew him liked him.
Nobody who/that watched the match will ever forget it.
B. Object of a verb: whom, who or that
The object form is whom, but it is considered very formal. In spoken English we normally use who or that (that being more usual than who), and it is still more common to omit the object pronoun altogether: The man whom I saw told me to come back today.
The man who I saw told me to come back today.
The man that I saw told me to come back today.
The man I saw told me to come back today.
C. With a preposition: whom or that
In formal English the preposition is placed before the relative pronoun, which must then be put into the form whom:
The man to whom I spoke…
In informal speech, however, it is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause.
Whom then is often replaced by that, but it is still more common to omit the relative altogether:
The man who/whom I spoke to…
The man that I spoke to…
The man I spoke to…

D. Possesssive
Whose is the only possible form:
People whose rents have been raised can appeal.
The film is about a spy whose wife betrays him.

Short answers
To make short answers:
 we use the verb to be



Bibliography: - A. J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1986 - R - N. Coe, Grammar Spectrum 3, Oxford University Press, 1996 EXERCISES

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