To look at the hypothesis that exposure to media violence is harmful to children, first look at it using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological approach. This approach demonstrates the overlapping ecological systems that operate together to influence what a person becomes as they develop. The individual, “with their biological and psychological characteristics” (Singleman & Rider 2008), is seen as rooted within the milieu of the microsystem (Jordan 2004). The connections between the microsystems are referred to as the mesosystem (Jordan 2004). While the social setting that influences a child’s development, but do not contain the individual, is the exosystem and the expansive cultural context that defines the child’s understanding of the influences in all the systems is the macrosystem (Jordan 2004). The individual and their family are in the microsystem, and the media is in the exosystem (Jordan 2004). The mesosystem connects the family with the individual and the family can offer ideas about violent media, such as discussing the violence as
References: Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 960-971. Anderson, C. A. & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviour in the laboratory and in life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 772-790. Bernstein, D. A., Penner, L. A., Clarke-Stewart, A., & Roy, E. J. (2006). Psychology (7th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Bushman, B., J. & Anderson, C., A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation, American Psychologist, 56(6/7), 477-489. Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C. & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adults: 1977-1992, Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201-221. Konijn, E. A., Bijvank, M. N. & Bushman, B. J. (2007). I wish I were a warrior: The role of wishful Identification in the effects of violent video games on aggression in adolescent boys, Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 1038-1044. Jordan, A. (2004). The role of media in children’s development: An ecological perspective, Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 25(3), 169-206. Olson, C. K., (2004). Media violence research and youth violence data: Why do they conflict?, Academic Psychiatry, 28(2), 144-150. Peterson, C. (2004). Looking forward through childhood and adolescence, Frenchs Forest: Pearson. Singelman, C. K. & Rider E. A. (2008). Life-span Human Development (6th ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning. Temblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century?, International Journal of Behavioural Development, 24(2), 129-141.