Is any published papers, books, etc that pertain to a particular topic. It contains literature coming from books, journalism, and other forms of material, concerning or relevant to the study, but are data-free or non – empirical material, coming from both foreign and local sources. This is written information that could have a relation or relevance to a specific topic of your thesis or dissertation. Is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. These materials are usually printed and found in books, encyclopedias, professional journals, magazines, newspapers, and other publications. May be defined as “Written works collectively, especially, those enduring importance, exhibiting creative imagination and artistic skill which in a particular period, language and subject”. E.g. The works of Paulo Coelho, Jane Austen, and Tom Clancy
Local - if printed in the Philippines.
Foreign - if printed in other lands.
Inquiries or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity. They are usually unpublished materials such as manuscripts, theses, and dissertations It means to look up details in books, or records, not necessarily part of your official research, but will help you to understand from a different point of view.
Local - if the inquiry was conducted in the Philippines.
Foreign - if conducted in foreign lands.
Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies
A survey or review of related literature and studies is very important because such reviewed literature and studies serve as a foundation of the proposed study. This is because related literature and studies guide the researcher in pursuing his research venture.
Sources of Related Literature and Studies
1. Book, encyclopedias, almanacs, and other similar references. 2. Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, and other publications. Sources of Related Literature and Studies 3. Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters, and diaries. 4. Unpublished theses and dissertations.
5. The Constitution, and laws and statues of the land. Sources of Related Literature and Studies 6. Bulletins, circulars, and orders emanating from government offices and departments, especially from the Office of the President of the Philippines and the Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Sources of Related Literature and Studies 7. Records from schools, public and private, especially reports of their activities. 8. Reports from seminars educational or otherwise. Sources of Related Literature and Studies 9. Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological, political, etc. from the government and other entities.
Characteristics of Related Literature and Studies
The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible. This is important because of the rapid social, economic, scientific, and technological change. Findings several years ago may be of little value today because of the fast changing life style of the people. There is exception, however. Treatises that deal on universals or things of more or less permanent nature may be still being good today. There are mathematical laws and formulas and statistical procedures that had been formulated a long, long time ago which are being use today with very, very little improvement. This is also true with natural and physical laws. Books on these, though written a long time ago, are still being cited today. Another exception is when a comparison or contrast is to be made between the conditions of today and those of a remote past, say ten or twenty years ago. Naturally, literature and studies about that remote past have to be surveyed and reviewed. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased. Some materials are extremely or subtly one sided, political, or religious, etc. Comparison with these materials cannot be made logically and validity. Distorted generalizations may result. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study. Only materials that have some bearing or similarity to the research problem at hand should be reviewed. Characteristics of Related Literature and Studies. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable. There are cases where fictitious data are supplied just to complete a research report (thesis or dissertation). Of course, this kind of deception is hard to detect and to prove. Thus, this is a real problem to honest researchers. Reviewed materials must not be few or too many. They must only be sufficient enough to give insight into the research problem or to indicate the nature of the present investigation. They may also depend upon the availability of related materials.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
When we say related literature, we are pertaining to written information about a certain subject of interest which will include those of the books, journals, articles, and internet resources. While when we say related studies, these are focused on the discussion regarding a certain phenomena that could be testable descriptively or experimentally, so it's not just based on information but through inferences. The difference between literature and studies is:
Literature refers to texts, books, pieces of writing; written works. Studies refer to research, analysis and/or experimentation regarding a subject, and may refer to written work that regards such studies.