The Reformation & Daily Life
The Wars of Religion
PART I: SHORT ANSWERS: Answer the following questions in complete paragraph form. There must be a comprehensive topic sentence and a beginning, middle and end to the paragraph. Be specific and use examples where appropriate. (5-7 sentences is a general guideline)
Why did the Reformation begin in Germany and not in France, Italy, England or Spain?
The Reformation began in Germany because Germany lacked The political unity to enforce national religious reforms and also thats where Martin Luther lived at the time. Without any unification with a religious order and as resentment of clerical immunities abuses spread, all of this provided a solid foundation for Luther’s reform. All of the other countries were busy with trying to bring back catholicism to Europe. So since Germany wasn't involved with these other countries it served as the perfect country to start a reform.
What were the political considerations impelling Henry VIII to create the Anglican Church?
Henry VIII was forced to create the Anglican Church because all he wanted was a son so that the son could rule after him. After marrying his deeds brother wife Catherine of Aragon and not having a son, he declared that the whole thing was cursed since it was his brothers wife, but the church did not give the required papal annulment. Charles VIII declared his supremacy over English spiritual affairs. Finally being able to decide his own marriage status.
What made John Calvin’s movement different from Luther’s?
The main difference of John Calvin’s movement and luther’s is the belief in both divine predestination and the individual’s responsibility, Calvinists were zealous reformers. It was believed that God already made the choice if you were going to heaven and hell. People thought that they would be able to do whatever they could here on earth because they already know where they were going. They didn't know that it was the individuals responsibility to create a godly society. Luther’s reform is off the belief of justification by faith alone. No indulgences necessary, like the Catholic church was doing. Calvinists were different but they believed in predestination which people thought of it as something else.
What did the Catholic Church do to deal with the problems of corruption that it faced?
The Catholic Church came up with the Counter-Reformation. Since sixteenth-century popes resisted efforts to change some of the laws many new religious orders formed. The society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits, were the most successful Counter-Reformation group. Organized by Ignatius of Loyola in the 1530s the society was thriving and was scattered throughout the world.
Were the wars of religion really over religion? Explain.
The wars of religion were never over. After the council of Trent in 1563, Catholics began a jesuit-led counteroffensive against Protestants. Every different country started adopting these new protestant religions and they all wanted their religion above all. Wars of Religion were both national conflicts and international wars. Catholics and protestants struggled for France, the Netherlands, and England. The Catholic governments of France and Spain fought the protestant regimes in England and the Netherlands. Therefore wars of religion were never really over.
PART II: IDENTIFICATIONS: Find 10 terms (people, events, places etc.) from the assigned sections in the chapters covered and identify them. You may use words that are already bolded and defined on the page. However, you must include more than just the provided definition. Provide greater context as to why this person, place or thing is important. You MUST include words from all of the assigned sections of the Unit. (General guideline here is 3-5 complete sentences; not a formal paragraph like the short answers.)
Martin Luther-Was an educated by teachers who had been influences by the Northern Renaissance. Luther was plagued by the disproportion between his own sense of sinfulness and the perfect righteousness that God required for salvation. Luther was not pleased to see what the Catholic Church was doing so he created the 95 Thesis, and later it caught on and finally became Lutherism. Indulgences-Remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven. Originally, indulgences had been granted for significant self-sacrifice, such as going to the holy land. These indulgences were just so that the church could get more money, a scam that people would believe. Ninety-five Theses-Documents wrote by Luther protesting the selling of indulgences. Luther believed such claims made salvation look like something that could be bought and sold. These theses made Luther famous overnight. They were embraced by humanists. Diet of worms-The meeting of the representative of the Holy Roman Empire presided over by the Emperor Charles V at the German City of Worms in 1521 at which Martin Luther was ordered to recant his Theses. Luther declared that he could not recant. He also said that he could not act against scripture, reason, and his own conscience. Transubstantiation-The doctrine that the entire substances of the bread and wine are changed in the Eucharist into the Body and blood of Christ. Luther insisted that Christ's human nature shared the properties of his divine nature; where Christ was spiritually present. Consubstantiation-The doctrine that substance of both bread and wine, and the body and blood of christ, are present in the Eucharistic offering Counter-reformation-The Sixteenth-century reform movement in the roman catholic church in reaction to the protestant reformation. St. Ignatius-Organized the society of Jesus. Began his spiritual Pilgrimage in 1521 while recuperating from battle wounds. Pope Paul III-called a general council to reassert Church Doctrine. Three sessions met I'm the city of Trent. The council of Trent most important reforms conceded international church discipline. Henry VIII-Married six woman in order for a son. Henry also continued to endorse Catholic Doctrine in a Country seething with Protestant sentiment. Henry Also came up with the Anglican Church just so he can control his own marriage status.