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Reflection in Teaching

By rossillea Aug 06, 2015 779 Words
Reflection in Teaching

Teachers, it is thought, benefit from the practice of reflection, the conscious act of thinking deeply about and carefully examining the interactions and events within their own classrooms. Educators T. Wildman and J Niles (1987) describe a scheme for developing reflective practice in experienced teachers. This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching. 老师们被认为是受益于对自己班级中的交流和事件有意识的深入思考和仔细的检查的。教育家TW和 JN (1987)提出了在经验丰富的教师中发展反思实践的方案。这被反思实践能够帮助老师们感到更理性的融入他们的角色和教学工作中并使他们能够处理教学中科学事实的不足和学科知识的不确定证明为合理的。

Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish—a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practicing teachers over several years. They were concerned that many would be "drawn to these new, refreshing conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy." The teachers were taken through a program of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting about specific issues in a supported, and later an independent manner. W和N对于调查哪种反思可能最为有用的条件尤其感兴趣——一个在文学中很少有指导的对象。他们给一群弗吉尼亚的老师设计了一个实验策略并与40位参与实践的老师进行了多年的合作。他们对于很多人可能会“沉浸在这些新型并充满活力的教学理念中只发现教师反思的抽象和实际教学反思差距太大。反思像教学这样复杂的工作并不容易。”老师们被带入一个关于教学事件的讨论活动,并接着在工作人员的协助下去反思特定的问题,之后是独立反思。

Wildman and Niles observed that systematic reflection on teaching required a sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. They describe the initial understanding in the teachers with whom they were working as being "utilitarian... and not rich or detailed enough to drive systematic reflection." Teachers rarely have the time or opportunities to view their own or the teaching of others in an objective manner. Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation. W和N观察到系统的教学反思需要一种以客观的态度理解班级中的事件的能力。他们最初认为参与这项工作的老师“很功利并且不够丰富或不够细致以驱动系统的反思。”老师们很少有时间或机会以客观的态度观察自己或者其他老师的教学。更多的观察显示老师们更倾向于评估事件而不是处在情况之外以重新看待这些主导因素。

Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. ■This process took time and patience and effective trainers. ■The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection. 帮助这些老师修订他们关于班级时间的思考成为了主要任务。这个过程投入了时间、耐心以及有效的训练员。研究者估计老师们最初以客观的态度看待事情的训练需要大约20到30小时,并且同样的时间被需要用来练习反思的技巧。

■Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. ■The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: "Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea." W和N确定了三个老师角度促进反思实践的原则。首先是来自教学系统管理者的支持,并使老师们明白反思的要求和它与教育学生的联系。其次是需要时间和空间的满足。项目中的老师们描述了他们放弃别人当时的需求而为他们自己誊出他们需要培养他们反思技巧的时间的困难。第三是发展一个可以获得其他老师支持的环境。项目中的老师也需要支持与鼓励以处理他们私生活不舒适的方面。W和N得出了一个总结性评论:“也许我们得到的最重要的东西是仅仅由于它的好处或甚至是其引人注目的想法还不能够使老师们成为反思实践者。”

The work of Wildman and Niles suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties of instituting reflective practice. Others have noted this, making a similar point about the teaching profession's cultural inhibitions about reflective practice. Zeichner and Liston (1987) point out the inconsistency between the role of the teacher as a (reflective) professional decision maker and the more usual role of the teacher as a technician, putting into practice the ideas of others. More basic than the cultural issues is the matter of motivation. Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work (Jaworski, 1993) and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability. Few have directly questioned what might lead a teacher to want to become reflective. Apparently, the most obvious reason for teachers to work toward reflective practice is that teacher educators think it is a good thing. There appear to be many unexplored matters about the motivation to reflect—for example, the value of externally motivated reflection as opposed to that of teachers who might reflect by habit. W和N的工作表明了认识到一些实行反思实践的难处的必要性。其他人也注意到了这一点,并指出了关于反思实践的文化约束问题上面临的相似的结论。Z和L指出了教师作为一个(反思)专业的决策者和一个更为常见的实践他人观念的技术员角色之间存在着前后矛盾。比文化问题更基本的是动机问题。成为一个反思实践者需要更多的努力(Jaworski,1993)并且也许只能略微的确定目标、起初很少的可察觉到的成功和责难的恐吓。很少有人直接质疑使老师想要变成反思型教师的原因。显然,最明显的使老师们向着反思实践工作的原因是教师教育家们认为这是一件好事。似乎还有许多关于反思动机的未解决的问题——比方说,外部驱动反思的价值与习惯于反思的老师的价值是形成对比的。

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