A Guide to Harvard Referencing
Referencing is a way of acknowledging that you have used the ideas and written material belonging to another author. It demonstrates for example, that you have undertaken an appropriate literature search and that you have carried out appropriate reading around the subject matter.
NCC Education prescribes the use of Harvard Referencing as it is widely used internationally, and this guide is intended to help you with referencing your work. The following are examples of sources you may wish to access and therefore need to reference: • Books
• Journal articles
• Electronic journal articles
• World Wide Web pages
Why is it necessary?
• The readers of your assignments need to be able to trace the sources you have used in the development of your work.
• If you do not acknowledge another author’s work or ideas, you could be accused of plagiarism.
• Accurate referencing is part of good academic practice and enhances the presentation of your work.
What is citing?
When you have used an idea from a book, journal article, etc. you must acknowledge this in your text. We refer to this as 'citing '.
Citing in the body of the text
When you cite a piece of work, you must always state the author/editor and the date of publication. If the work has two authors/editors you must cite both names. Only include the names and date, do not include the title, place of publication, etc. Full details of the reference should be written in your bibliography at the end of your essay. Example – 1 Author:
The work of Smith (2001) highlights the conflicting results of research carried out by
Jones and Lewis.
Example – 2 Authors:
The work of Thatcher & Blake (2004) highlights the conflicting results of research carried out by Jones and Lewis.
NCC Education 2
If the work has three or more authors/editors, the abbreviation 'et al ' should be used after the first author 's name.
The work of
Bibliography: Ryan, L. (2001) Nottingham – A History. Blackwell, London. Kawanishi, M. (2003) The History of Japan. Trans. Brown, D. Hakodate Publishing, Hakodate. Brown A. and Wesley, C. W. (1995) ‘An investigation of the Hawthorne effect’, Management Sciences Journal, 42(1), pp 47-66. Available from: http://www.alu.ac.uk [Accessed 6th June, 2002].