Final Assignment of English Morphology
(Reduplication in Bantawa Language)
E1D 111 098
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MATARAM
REDUPLICATION IN BANTAWA LANGUAGE
The Bantawa language is an endangered of Tibeto-Burman language that is spoken in the eastern Himalayan hills of eastern Nepal. It is belonging to Tibeto-Burman sub-family.This language is spoken by Rai ethnic groups. According to the 2001 National Census, at least 1.63% of the Nepal's total population speaks Bantawa. About 370,000 speak Bantawa Language mostly in eastern hilly regions of Nepal (2001). It is also spoken is some parts of Darjeeling district of West Bengal (India), Sikkim and Bhutan. Reduplication is one of the most productive morphological processes in Bantawa language. Commonly, this process has two major functions, namely morphology and semantics. According to Apte (1969), the morphological function of reduplication is to indicate the various grammatical categories such as number, gender, tense and mode etc. This function is not common in most of the languages. Furthermore, Bloomfield gives some of the examples of this type from tagalong and Fox. Whereas, the semantic function of reduplication is to show intensity, less intensity, continuity, certainty, distribution, repeated action and specification of the meaning which is expressed in the basic unit before the reduplication. This is the most common function which is found in the most of the languages. However, Bantawa has both of these functions of reduplication. The term ‘reduplication’ is defined by various scholars in various ways regarding different languages. Apte, M. L. (1968) has given a detail description of reduplication process and it structure in Marathi. He writes “the term reduplication may now be defined as either the repetition of an entire or a particle phoneme sequence of a stem morpheme which, together with the stem, constitutes a word; or the repetition of the initial or the first two syllables within a unit already established as a primary word, such the repetition of the initial or the first two syllables being either complete or partial...”. He has taken a ‘word’ as the basic unit for reduplication in Marathi. A morpheme is considered as a basic unit for reduplication in Bantawa. A bound or free morpheme can be repeated as a process of reduplication. This point will be discussed in the next the analysis section of this paper. Reduplication can be both partial and complete in Bantawa. Complete reduplication is the reduplication when the whole base or the first unit is fully repeated as a second unit. On the other hand, partial reduplication is the reduplication that occurred when a bound form of a morpheme as the part of a word is being repeated. Onomatopoeia and echo-formation are not included in this paper. The grammatical function of reduplication which is considered to be specific function of the language is dealt first and the semantic function which is supposed to be the general one is discussed later in this paper.
Following the previous explanation, there are two functions of reduplication namely morphological function and semantic function.
A. Morphological function.
The morphological function of reduplication is to indicate the various grammatical categories such as class word, number, gender, tense and mode. In this function, the reduplication process involves the change of grammatical function. For example in Bantawa language, the word ‘kin’ as the verb which means ‘to scare’ is being reduplicated become the word ‘kinkin’ as the noun that means ‘scare-crow’. This example indicates that the reduplication process results the changing of the class word from verb turned into noun. 1. The other examples of changing in class word are:
/kūǹ/ ‘to hang’ /kūǹkūǹri/ ‘ a swing’
/lak/ ‘to hang’ /laklak/ ‘hanger’
/Tim/ ‘to press’...
References: Apte, M.L. 1968. Reduplication, Echo Formation and Onomatopoeia in Marathi, Poona: Deccan Collage.
Baskhararao, Peri. 1977. Reduplication and Onomatopoeia in Telugu. Poona: Deccan Collage.
Marantaz, A. 1982. “Reduplication” Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 13. No. 13
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