REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES

Topics: Syntactic entities, Participle, Noun phrase Pages: 18 (925 words) Published: March 13, 2015
REDUCED RELATIVE
CLAUSES

Reduced

relative clauses are participle clauses
which follow a noun. They are like relative
clauses, but with the relative pronoun and
auxiliary verb (if there is one) left out.
Because they modify nouns, (reduced) relative
clauses are occasionally referred to as adjective
clauses.
Reduced relative clauses are used most often
instead of defining relative clauses, which are
what we'll be mainly looking at.

Reduced Relative Clauses


You may remove the relative pronoun and reduce your
sentence in certain  conditions



The boy who wants to talk to you is waiting for you.
The boy wanting to talk to you is waiting for you.

Relative Clause Reduction Rules

1. In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object.

The boy who / whom / that you don’t like much wants to
talk to you.
The boy you don’t like much wants to talk to you.

 Remember

that when the relative pronoun is the object of
a defining relative clause, we can omit (leave out) who,
which or that.



The children (who) I taught all became geniuses. - direct object



This is the hotel (which) I was telling you about. - object of the preposition about



They're going to have to sell the house (that) they bought only a year ago. - direct object

Note: In non-defining sentences you neither
omit the relative pronoun nor use "that".
My mother, who / whom that you met yesterday,
wants to talk to you.
My mother you met yesterday...

2. We can use participles when reducing the
sentence.


a) Present Participle Ving (simultaneous)
We stood on the bridge which connects the two halves of the city. We stood on the bridge connecting the two halves of the city. (Present Participle)
b) Past Participle V3 or being V3 (passive simultaneous) Two boy who was attacked by a dog was taken to hospital.
Two boy attacked by a dog was taken to hospital. (Past Participle)

Omitting the -ing form when it is followed by a
prepositional phrase
 We

can omit the present participle when it is followed
by a prepositional phrase:

 The

people who were sitting at the back couldn't
hear.

 The

people sitting at the back couldn't hear.

 The

people at the back couldn't hear.

3. If "To be" verb is used after a relative
pronoun we can omit "Relative Pronoun +
To be".
 The

car which is parked next to mine is very
expensive.
The car parked next to mine is very expensive.
Hamlet, which was written by Shakespeare in the
early 1600s, is among the classics.
Hamlet, written by Shakespeare in the early 1600s, is
among the classics.

4. When the verb “have” meaning
possession, we can omit relative pronoun
and “have” and use with(+) or without(-).
 Students who

have enough knowledge and skills
will be admitted.
Students with enough knowledge and skills will be
admitted.
People who don’t have their ID cards can not get in.
People without their ID cards can not get in. 

5. We can use infinitive “to” in the cases
below.
1.

The only...to
2. Superlative...to
3. The first, last, second, next...toJack
is the first person who has handed in this
exam.
Jack is the first person to have handed in
this exam.

5. We can use infinitive “to” in the cases
below.
John

is the only person who understands me.
John is the only person to understand me.
Tom is the most handsome boy who came in
this school.
Tom is the most handsome boy to come in
this school.

5. We can use infinitive “to” in the cases
below.
John

is the only person who understands me.
John is the only person to understand me.
Tom is the most handsome boy who came in
this school.
Tom is the most handsome boy to come in
this school.

5. We can use infinitive “to” in the cases
below.


Jack is the first person who has handed in this
exam.
Jack is the first person to have handed in this
exam.

 And

what about...
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