Top-Rated Free Essay

Recycling

Good Essays
Topics: Recycling, Waste
RECYCLING
Recycling is a process to change materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.[1][2] Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.
There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice.
.
Recycling consumer waste
Collection

Recycling and rubbish bin in a German railway station
A number of different systems have been implemented to collect recyclates from the general waste stream. These systems lie along the spectrum of trade-off between public convenience and government ease and expense. The three main categories of collection are "drop-off centres," "buy-back centres," and "curbside collection".[2]
Drop-off centres
Drop-off centres require the waste producer to carry the recyclates to a central location, either an installed or mobile collection station or the reprocessing plant itself. They are the easiest type of collection to establish, but suffer from low and unpredictable throughput.
Buy-back centres
Buy-back centres differ in that the cleaned recyclates are purchased, thus providing a clear incentive for use and creating a stable supply. The post-processed material can then be sold on, hopefully creating a profit. Unfortunately, government subsidies are necessary to make buy-back centres a viable enterprise, as according to the United States National Solid Wastes Management Association it costs on average US$50 to process a ton of material, which can only be resold for US$30
Distributed Recycling
For some waste materials such as plastic, recent technical devices called recyclebots[10] enable a form of distributed recycling. Preliminary life-cycle analysis(LCA) indicates that such distributed recycling of HDPE to make filament of 3-D printers in rural regions is energetically favorable to either using virgin resin or conventional recycling processes because of reductions in transportation energy [11]
Recycling industrial waste

Mounds of shredded rubber tires are ready for processing
Although many government programs are concentrated on recycling at home, a large portion of waste is generated by industry. The focus of many recycling programs done by industry is the cost-effectiveness of recycling. The ubiquitous nature of cardboard packaging makes cardboard a commonly recycled waste product by companies that deal heavily in packaged goods, like retail stores, warehouses, and distributors of goods. Other industries deal in niche or specialized products, depending on the nature of the waste materials that are present.
The glass, lumber, wood pulp, and paper manufacturers all deal directly in commonly recycled materials. However, old rubber tires may be collected and recycled by independent tire dealers for a profit.
Levels of metals recycling are generally low. In 2010, the International Resource Panel, hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) published reports on metal stocks that exist within society[16] and their recycling rates.[17] The Panel reported that the increase in the use of metals during the 20th and into the 21st century has led to a substantial shift in metal stocks from below ground to use in applications within society above ground. For example, the in-use stock of copper in the USA grew from 73 to 238 kg per capita between 1932 and 1999.
Plastic recycling
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different in form from their original state. For instance, this could mean melting down soft drink bottles and then casting them as plastic chairs and tables. Typically a plastic is not recycled into the same type of plastic, and products made from recycled plastics are often not recyclable.
Waste Plastic Pyrolysis to fuel oil
Another process involves the conversion of assorted polymers into petroleum by a much less precise thermal depolymerization process. Such a process would be able to accept almost any polymer or mix of polymers, including thermoset materials such as vulcanized rubber tires and the biopolymers in feathers and other agricultural waste. Like natural petroleum, the chemicals produced can be made into fuels as well as polymers. RESEM Technology[20] plant of this type exists in Carthage, Missouri, USA, using turkey waste as input material. Gasification is a similar process, but is not technically recycling since polymers are not likely to become the result. Plasitc Pyrolysis can convert petroleum based waste streams such as plastics into quality fuels, carbons. Given below is the list of suitable plastic raw materials for pyrolysis: * Mixed plastic (HDPE, LDPE, PE, PP, Nylon, Teflon, PS, ABS, FRP etc) * Mixed waste plastic from waste paper mill * Multi Layered Plastic * Cost–benefit analysis Environmental effects of recycling[24] | Material | Energy savings | Air pollution savings | Aluminium | 95%[2][8] | 95%[2][25] | Cardboard | 24% | — | Glass | 5–30% | 20% | Paper | 40%[8] | 73% | Plastics | 70%[8] | — | Steel | 60%[4] | — | * There is some debate over whether recycling is economically efficient. It is said that dumping 10,000 tons of waste in a landfill creates six jobs, while recycling 10,000 tons of waste can create over 36 jobs. However, the cost effectiveness of creating the additional jobs remains unproven. According to the U.S. Recycling Economic Informational Study, there are over 50,000 recycling establishments that have created over a million jobs in the US.[26] Two years after New York City declared that implementing recycling programs would be "a drain on the city," New York City leaders realized that an efficient recycling system could save the city over $20 million.[ * Energy and material flows * * * Bales of crushed steel ready for transport to the smelter. * Costs * * * Used electronics collected at a recycling event in Olympia, WA * The amount of money actually saved through recycling depends on the efficiency of the recycling program used to do it. The Institute for Local Self-Reliance argues that the cost of recycling depends on various factors around a community that recycles, such as landfill fees and the amount of disposal that the community recycles. It states that communities start to save money when they treat recycling as a replacement for their traditional waste system rather than an add-on to it and by "redesigning their collection schedules and/or trucks."[58] * In some cases, the cost of recyclable materials also exceeds the cost of raw materials. Virgin plastic resin costs 40 percent less than recycled resin.[59] Additionally, a United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study that tracked the price of clear glass from July 15 to August 2, 1991, found that the average cost per ton ranged from $40 to $60,[60] while a USGS report shows that the cost per ton of raw silica sand from years 1993 to 1997 fell between $17.33 and $18.10.[61]
Recyclables in landfills
In 2002, WNYC reported that 40 percent of the garbage that New York City residents separated for recycling actually ended up in landfills.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Recycling

    • 373 Words
    • 2 Pages

    August 20,2012 Major city recycling initiatives The population of the world continues to increase dramatically, further pushing the need for our world to adopt resource conservation as a way of life. Between 1950 and 2010, the U.S. population nearly doubled (conner) Recycling efforts must focus on water, energy, paper, metal, aluminum cans, glass, plastic, Styrofoam, steel, junk mail, garbage, tires, and even food. Although there is no federal mandate for recycling, many states have passed laws…

    • 373 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Recycling

    • 1326 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Recycling in Montgomery Sonali Patel Eng1001 December 17, 2013 Instructor Lisa Teitler South University Recycling in Montgomery Imagine a world where there is absolutely no pollution. A world filled with luscious greenery and pure air. Does it sound like a dream? Actually, with the joint effort of people around the globe, this dream is on its way to becoming reality! Globally, people are becoming more aware of recycling than ever before, but it is still not the highest priority for…

    • 1326 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Recycling

    • 790 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Recycling SCI201 Ecology and Environmental Sustainability June 18, 2014 Barbara Wharton Robert Carter Recycling Journal for the week of May 29 – June 4, 2014 Thursday - 2 cans, 1 newspaper Friday – 1 newspaper, 1 plastic bottle Saturday – cleaning out cabinets – old plastic containers, glass jars, coffee cans. Sunday – newspaper, plastic bottle Monday – newspaper, 1 can, glass bottle Tuesday - newspaper, glass bottle Wednesday –…

    • 790 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Recycling

    • 257 Words
    • 2 Pages

    folks, recycling is free and/or cheaper than hauling away landfill garbage. Many communities either have or are running out of landfill space. Once the existing landfill space is used up, either a new landfill must be built (typically expensive and payed for through increased taxes), or the garbage must be hauled off to a different area to be dumped (expensive and payed for through increased garbage rates). And, ev en so there will come a time that there will be no nice alternatives. Recycling has…

    • 257 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    Recycling

    • 1306 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The Importance of Recycling There are many advantages to recycling. Many people see recycling as a huge hassle or a big time consumer; when the actuality of it is, it’s extremely simple and beneficial. Recycling is a process that turns materials that most would throw away, to be reused and turned into valuable resources once again. Not only can we cut back on waste to help reduce global warming, but we can also help reserve some of our natural resources by doing so. By doing this, we wont have…

    • 1306 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Best Essays

    recycling

    • 3604 Words
    • 15 Pages

    Recycling Waste management and Effectiveness Student Name: Chu Yu Student Number: 2991874 Tutor: Mrs Gemma Contos Date: 4th September 2012 Unit: EL 4 Table of Contents Abstract 1 Introduction 2 1.Waste management and Scarce Resources 2 2.Recycling 3 Recycling Paper 5 1.Process 5 2. Why Recycle Paper 11 Case Study: Recycling in Japan- Towards a zero waste society? 14 Conclusion 18 Recommendations 19 Reference List 20 List of Figures, Graphs, Images…

    • 3604 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Better Essays

    Recycling

    • 1205 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Don’t litter, it makes the world bitter! Recycle your bottles, cans, plastic and paper. Do not litter them; they can be used in some other way. Environmental sciences ERSC 1020H Marta Wolniewicz Recycling 2 Introduction: Recycling is very important for the natural environment and for humans as well. Littering has a huge negative effect on our environment and human health. Such as plastic, this is made up of non-biodegradable material and will always stay in some form. It is hazardous for…

    • 1205 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    Recycling

    • 1971 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Recycling: The Best Savings Plan for a Better Tomorrow. Recycled Orchestra is the orchestra which consists of kids and teenagers who play music with the help of recycled instruments in Cateura, Paraguay which a slum made on a landfill. The people in the slums cannot afford to buy musical instruments for their children. So, they collect the instruments and waste items from the garbage and by repairing the instruments and using the other required things to make the instruments for their children…

    • 1971 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    advantages of recycling

    • 301 Words
    • 2 Pages

    THE BENEFITS OF RECYCLING Recycling is one of an important thing to save our life. Recycling means reducing the demands for waste treatment capacity and reducing waste streams. The consumption of non-renewable resources will increase if the less obvious recycling increased. The objectives of recycling are to minimize the resources utilization and emissions of all streams of materials in the production cycle. All the people in the earth should make recycling as their routine in their daily because…

    • 301 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Recycling for the Future

    • 1115 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Recycling for the Future According to Franklin Delano Roosevelt “A nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air and giving fresh strength to our people.” Just about everyone knows our environment is in danger. One of the most serious threats is the massive amount of waste we put into the air, water, and ground every year. All across the world are thousands of places that have been polluted by toxic waste, radioactive waste, and just plain garbage…

    • 1115 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays