Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury
Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury Outline
A. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health issue in the United States. B. TBI is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain C. TBI is generally categorized as mild, moderate or severe.
II. Define Terms
A. Most TBIs are mild TBI (MTBI)
B. Moderate brain injury is often diagnosed well after the injury, as other apparent injuries can mask the symptoms. C. Severe brain injury is defined as a brain injury resulting in a loss of consciousness of greater than 6 hours.
Details of the problems and solutions to them.
The victim with mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) may not need extensive cognitive rehabilitation, though he or she may display problems with memory, emotions, and behavior. Mild traumatic brain injuries usually require no treatment other than rest and over-the-counter pain relievers to treat a headache. However, a person with a mild traumatic brain injury usually needs to be monitored closely at home for any persistent, worsening or new symptoms. He or she also may have follow-up doctor appointments. B.
The symptoms of moderate brain injury are often not as obvious as the symptoms of more severe brain injuries. In many cases, the symptoms are vague yet unsettling. The patient may look and even act fine, but doesn’t feel quite like himself or herself. The prognosis for moderate brain injury is good, with most patients recovering most or all of brain function. Emergency care for moderate traumatic brain injuries focuses on making sure the person has an adequate oxygen and blood supply, maintaining blood pressure, and preventing any further injury to the head or neck. People may also have other injuries that need to be addressed. Treatments in the emergency room or intensive care unit of a hospital will focus on minimizing secondary damage due to inflammation, bleeding or reduced oxygen supply to the brain C.
Severe traumatic brain injuries can include any of the signs and symptoms of mild injury, as well as the following symptoms that may appear within the first hours to days after a head injury. Loss of consciousness from several minutes to hours. Profound confusion and or agitation, combativeness or other unusual behavior. Slurred speech and inability to awaken from sleep. Weakness or numbness in fingers and toes and loss of coordination. Persistent headache or headache that worsens. Repeated vomiting or nausea and convulsions or seizures. Dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes and clear fluids draining from the nose or ears. Severe TBI is complex, and focuses on controlling the second phase of injury. This phase involves swelling of damaged tissue as well neurons dying from lack of oxygen. Adequate oxygen supply to the brain will be delivered by ensuring the airway is open and the patient is breathing adequate supplies of oxygen. The blood pressure must be kept above a certain limit to ensure enough blood reaches the brain. Because patients with severe TBI often also have neck injuries, their neck may be placed in a cervical collar. The victim will be evaluated closely to see if there are signs of brain swelling. If this swelling becomes too severe, it could increase the pressure in the skull (called intracranial pressure or ICP). This can lead to the brain moving through a small opening into a space to which it doesn't belong, a process called herniation, which has serious and often fatal consequences.
Solutions 1. Hospitalization in MTBI is not required but Doctors visit is recommended. In moderate or severe TBI it is needed for the...
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