In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln began preparing his plan for Reconstruction to reunify the North and South after the war is ended. Because Lincoln believed that the South had never legally seceded from the Union. Lincoln announced his Reconstruction plan in December 1863. Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan, which specified that a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once ten percent of its voters, swore an oath of allegiance to the Union, voters could then elect delegates to draft revised state constitutions and establish new state governments. Lincoln also proposed extending suffrage to African Americans who were educated, owned property, or had serve in the Union Army. The three southern states-Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, all under Union occupation-reestablished loyal governments under the Lincoln formula in 1864. (The Unfinished Nation, p373). Although, Lincoln announced The Reconstruction Plan along with its model of 10 percent plan, he wasn’t able to carry it out due to his death of assassination in 1866.
After the abolition of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, all former slave states adopted new Black Codes. During 1865 every Southern state passed Black Codes that restricted the Freedmen, who were emancipated but not yet full citizens.