Contents of Curriculum Unit 96.03.05:
* Lesson Plan
* Lesson Plan
* Lesson Plan
* Television Shows
* Children's Reading List
* Teachers Bibliography
To Guide Entry
The practice of racial stereotyping through the use of media has been used throughout contemporary history by various factions in American society to attain various goals. The practice is used most by the dominant culture in this society as a way of suppressing its minority population. The Republican parties use of the Willie Horton image in the 1988 Presidential campaign, is a small example of how majority groups have used racial stereotyping in the media as a justifiable means to an end. The book Unthinking Eurocentrism by Stam and Shohat supports this notion when they write "the functionality of stereotyping used in film demonstrates that they (stereotypes) are not an error in perception but rather a form of social control intended as Alice Walker calls "prisons of image."(1)
The modern usage of the word stereotype was first introduced in 1922 by American journalist Walter Lippman in his book Public Opinion. The major thesis of this book is that in a modern democracy political leaders and ordinary citizens are required to make decisions about a variety of complicated matters that they do not understand. "People believe that their conceptions of German soldiers, Belgian priests, or American Klu Klux Klansman for example are accurate representations of the real members of those classes . . . the conception in most cases is actually a stereotype acquired by the individual from some other source other than his direct experience."(2)
Historically the "other source" people developed racial stereotypes were from literature and then radio. In 1933 Sterling Brown the great black poet and critic, divided the full range of black characters in American literature into seven categories; the contented slave; the wretched freemen: the comic Negro; the tragic mulatto; the local color Negro; and the exotic primitive. Dr. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. speaks of Dr. Brown's work in the article TV's Black World Turns but Stays Unreal. "It was only one small step to associate our public negative image in the American mind with the public negative social roles that we were assigned to and to which we were largely confined."(3)
In contemporary American society the most affective way in which stereotypes are perpetuated is through the mediums of film and television. Images from these mediums constantly bombard American children with negative and unrealistic portrayals of African-American life or deny the existence of African-Americans in a "true" American society at all.
The use of racial stereotyping is destructive to American society on two fronts. First it connotes to the majority population of America that the negative actions of a few minorities sum up the collective values of the whole minority community. For example, in urban America to be a mugger is synonymous with being African American or Hispanic. As a result of media images, the immediate image we accept as norm is that of whites being mugged by blacks and Hispanics. While of course, black and Hispanic men have mugged whites, to have this be a dominant image goes against many national and local crime statistics. Discussing racial imaging in the book Questioning the Media, Ash Corea explains "stereotypes seek to portray African-Americans as a "problem" in an otherwise harmonious country."(4) Stam and Shohat explain "the mark of the plural" in Unthinking Eurocentrisim. They explain how "the mark of the plural" projects colonized people as all the same, any negative behavior by any member of the oppressed community is instantly generalized as typical, as pointing to a perpetual backsliding toward some negative essence. Representations thus become allegorical."(5) They further explain how stereotyping "of other communities participate in a...
Bibliography: Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks. New York: Continuum, 1989
This books reveals and gives a historical perspective on the various incarnations of black stereotypes in American cinema.
Cripps, Thomas. Black Film as Genre. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
This book attempts to explain "what is a black film" and critiques six examples of the genre.
Henry Louis Gates, Jr., "TV 's Black World Turns—But Stays Unreal", New York Times (November 12, 1989): 66-67.
In this article Dr. Gates reveals how despite the success of television shows such as "The Cosby Show" stereotyping of blacks on T.V. is still prevalent.
Guerrero, Ed. Framing Blackness: The African-American Image in Film. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
The book chronicles blacks misrepresentation in American films.
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