Prior research has revealed numerous topics relevant in the study of integrated marketing communications and how marketer should best handle the IMC process in order to develop truly integrated communication programs (Cook 1997; Kitchen and Schultz 1999; Schultz and Kitchen 1997).
Schultz and Schultz (1998) defines IMC as a “strategic business process used to plan, develop, execute and evaluate coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communication programmes over time with consumers, customers, prospects and other targeted, relevant external and internal audiences.” The IMC can be represented as what Jenkins calls the “Theorists Tetrahedron” or “Problem Pyramid” as shown below:
The four variables form the pyramid and each variable has certain factors. Each edge of the pyramid represents two-way interactions between factors and the whole of tetrahedron represents a four way interaction of all variables.
Figure 1: Marketing Communication Tetrahedron
Source: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t914689377 The “Marketing Communication Tetrahedron” (MCT) considers four factors which constitute to marketing communication effectiveness (Figure 1).
Consumers vary obviously based on different characteristics such as demographic (e.g. age, gender, race, etc.), psychographic (e.g. attitude towards self and others, etc.), behavioural (e.g. loyalty, brand choice, usage, etc.) which forms foundation for market segmentation and leads to growth of distinct marketing programs.
Fundamentally, marketing communications differ on various aspects of modality – e.g. the number (sight, sound, motion, spoken or written words, etc.) and nature (static, dynamic, interactive, customized, etc.) of modalities involved (Wright 1981; Edell 1988). These basic characteristics of marketing communication are quintessential in how they interact with the consumer characteristics and
References: 1. Belch, M & Belch, G (2007) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. 7th ed. San Diego: McGraw-Hill. 11-21. 2. Cook & William, A (1997) Integrated Marketing Communications: Performing Together. Journal of Advertising Research. 37 (5) 5-6 3. Edell, J & Keller, K (1999) Analyzing Media Interactions: The Effects of Coordinated TV-Print Advertising. Journal of Marketing Management. 99-120 4. Keller, K (2001) Mastering the Marketing Communications Mix: Micro and Macro Perspectives on Integrated Marketing Communication Programs. Journal of Marketing Management. 17 (7) 819-847 5. Kitchen & Schultz, D (1999) A Multi-Country Comparison of the Drive for IMC. Journal of Advertising Research. 39 (1) 21-38. 6. Schultz, D & Kitchen, P (1997) Integrated Marketing Communications in U.S. Advertising Agencies. Journal of Advertising Research. 37 (5) 7-18. 7. Schultz, D (1992) Integrated Marketing Communications. Journal of Promotion Management. 1 (1) 99-104 8. Smith, P & Taylor, J (2004) Marketing Communications: An Integrated Approach. 4th ed. New York: Kogan Page Publishers. 9. Wright & Peter, L (1981) Cognitive Responses to Mass Media Advocacy: In Cognitive Responses to Persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research, 10, 53-62.