Realism as a philosophy flourished in the 18th and 19th century and was revived after the Second World War. E.H Carr, George Kennan, Thompson, Schumann and Morgenthau were its leading exponents. Morgenthau is generally recognized as its main proponent. He was the first one to develop a realist model and the central focus of realism, according to him was power. His theory was developed in the form of six principles of political realism. Following are those six principles:
1. Politics governed by objective laws based on Human nature:
Morgenthau contended that the laws which govern the human nature are consistent and eternal. Such laws are impervious to human preferences and as such cannot be refuted and challenged. Man is the mixture of good and bad, selfishness and altruism; he fights and he loves; he murders and sacrifices himself for others. And above all his is a story of war and peace. ” Consequently, the aim should be to ascertain facts and interpret them through our reason.”
This means that it is possible to develop a theory that reflects the laws governing human nature which would assist us in differentiating between truth and opinion which would further help us “put ourselves in the position of a statesman” and predict what he should rationally do. They can be collected as facts from the history through empirical and logical devices. However, this collection and the conclusion we must be rational, as he remarks “It is the testing of rational hypothesis against the actual facts and their consequences that give meaning to facts of international politics and makes a theory of politics possible.”
Thus, only by understanding the objective laws based on human nature can one understand and study International Politics. While to understand these objective laws one has to study the history of human relations. By doing this we can formulate an empirical and logical theory of International Politics.
2. National Interest defined in terms...
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