We believe that at the heart of understanding reading and writing connections, one must begin to view reading and writing as essentially similar processes of meaning construction. Both are acts of composing. (Tierney &Pearson, 1983, p.568)
1983------- Writing: active skill
Reading: passive skill
Major constructions of reading-writing connections
1.Stotsky(1983) focused on three themes of research :
b-studies examining the influence of writing on reading
c- Studies examining the influence of reading on writing
2.Grabe & Kaplan(1996)- reciprocal nature of reading - writing 3. Tierney and Shanahan (1991) – reading and writing should be viewed together … 4. Carson and Leki worked with two major themes:
5.Grabe -a list of the processes to balance :
a-planning for writing
b-Using language resources
c-using background knowledge
d-solving rhetorical problems
e-reading to review text to that point
f-balancing processes strategically
h-revisng plans and text appropriately
1. Grabe’s review – emphasis on process of learning
It’s important to note that much of what we know about the ways, in which reading and writing connect, comes from the study of these connections in the work of L1, or native English speaking, writers. 2.Tierney (1992)- comparison of beliefs and pedagogical practices in 1970s and 1990s.
Reading is receiving: writing is producing.
Reading and writing are composing, constructing, problem solving activities. Reading and writing are means of translating or transmitting ideas.
Reading and writing are vehicles for thinking. Reading involves understanding the author’s message; writing involves making your message clear for others.
Reading and writing involve interaction among participants as communicators, as well as the pursuit of self-discovery. Reading and writing occur...
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