REACTIVITIES OF SOME ALKYL HALIDES

Topics: Plant, Seed, Fungus Pages: 6 (1333 words) Published: November 25, 2013
INTRODUCTION TO ASCLEPIAS CALIFORNICA
The terrestrial plant, Asclepias californica, is the primary food source for Monarch butterflies. It can only germinate and produce seeds if provided with the proper environmental influence. The California milkweed's population is spread out in the southern and coastal areas of California where there are flat lands and grassy slopes. It can also grow up to three feet tall and have clumps consisting of multiple stems that are a couple of feet in width. Unlike the Monarch butterflies, other animals avoid this plant mainly because of its toxic resinoids, alkaloids, and cardiac glycosides. On the contrary, Monarch butterflies ingest the alkaloids contained by this plant for protection from predators such as slugs. Not only is it used by the Monarch butterflies, but humans as well. Its dried and powdered form can be applied onto skin with a spider bite. And latex contained in the stems and leaves can also make rubber. Like people, seedlings need to grow up nourished and strong to repopulate. Its necessities include the right temperature, amounts of water, season, surrounding air, amount of sunlight, and soil conditions. In addition, a fungus known as mycorrhizae will develop within the roots of this plant and eventually undergo symbioses. Fortunately, these mycorrhizal fungi form mutualistic relationships; which will enable the plant to absorb a sufficient amount of water, consume nutrients from the soil, and prevent pathogens from harming the roots. An experiment on the germination and seed production will be conducted with and without the use of the mycorrhizal fungi to determine its level of influence on the Asclepias californica plant's progress. The plants will be raised and nursed in a greenhouse. Overall, the healthy seedlings will be given away for donation to the butterfly gardens located in Orange County.

METHOD:
The seedling project was conducted from October 10th, 2012 to November 26th, 2012. We collected 10 pots and labeled all of them with two different group names. Five of the plants that were used in the experiment were exposed to the mycorrhizae and were therefore named “ Group M”. On the other hand, the other half contained fungicide which we named “Group F”. In the first layer, we added one inch of gravel bark into the bottom of each pot, and one inch of soil for the next one. Then we proceeded by adding 10 centimeters cubed of either mycorrhizae or fungicide to the appropriate labels. Furthermore, we added a half inch of soil for all 10 pots to serve as the third layer in the pot. Lastly, three seeds were placed inside each pot and were covered by a half inch of soil. Ultimately, we watered each pot with 100 milliliters of water. We kept all the pots in the greenhouse where they were watered and checked regularly. On October 17th,2012 , the first two germinated seeds were found in both groups under the pot named M2 for mycorrhizal group and F4 for the fungicide group. The result was unexpected, the surface of the soil seemed to be dried out most probably due to the seed's lack of water needed for germination. Therefore, we added 100 milliliters of water for each pot again. The following data will show the result for germination after the second visit on October 29th.

GERMINATION RATE
POT NUMBER
GROUP F
GROUP M
1
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
3
4
2
1
5
1
2

According to this chart, there was not much difference between the two groups for germination. We can conclude that the mycorrhizal treatment did not affect germination for the seeds. However, external factors such as water, oxygen, and temperature play an important role in the process. On the other hand, the quality of the seed (dormant seed) was also the reason for its delayed germination. Besides germination, the height and thickness of the stem are very important factors that help us determine the success of the seeding. The data below tracked the height (in cm) of each tree which was...
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