Topics: Rape, Sexual intercourse, Sexual assault Pages: 22 (7841 words) Published: October 14, 2013
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about a form of sexual assault. For other uses, see Rape (disambiguation). For rape among non-human animals, see Sexual coercion.

Sexual assault
Classification and external resources

The rape of noblewoman Lucretia was a starting point of events that led to the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom and establishment of theRoman Republic. As a direct result of rape, Lucretia committed suicide. Many artists and writers were inspired by the story, includingShakespeare, Botticelli, Rembrandt, Dürer,Artemisia Gentileschi, Geoffrey Chaucer,Thomas Heywood and others. ICD-9

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse, which is initiated by one or more persons against another person without that person's consent. The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority or against a person who is incapable of valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, or below the legal age of consent.[1][2][3][4] Internationally, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police during 2008 varied between 0.1 in Egypt per 100,000 people and 91.6 per 100,000 people in Lesotho with 4.9 per 100,000 people in Lithuania as the median.[5] According to the American Medical Association (1995), sexual violence, and rape in particular, is considered the most underreported violent crime.[6][7] The rate of reporting, prosecution and convictions for rape varies considerably in different jurisdictions. The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999) estimated that 91% of U.S. rape victims are female and 9% are male, with 99% of the offenders being male.[8] Rape by strangers is usually less common than rape by persons the victim knows,[9][10][11][12][13] and several studies argue thatmale-male and female-female prison rape are quite common and may be the least reported forms of rape.[14][15][16] When part of a widespread and systematic practice, rape and sexual slavery are recognized as crimes against humanity and war crimes. Rape is also recognized as an element of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted ethnic group. People who have been raped can be severely traumatized and may suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder;[17] in addition to psychological harm resulting from the act, rape may cause physical injury, or have additional effects on the victim, such as acquiring of a sexually transmitted infection or becoming pregnant. Furthermore, following a rape, a victim may face violence or threats thereof from the rapist, and, in some cultures, from the victim's own family and relatives.[18][19][20] Contents

1 Etymology of term
2 Definitions
2.1 Penetrative and non-penetrative
2.2 Consent
2.3 Marital rape
3 Motivation of perpetrators
4 Effects
4.2 Victim blaming
4.3 Honor killings and forced marriages
5 Prosecution
5.1 Reporting
5.2 Investigation
5.3 Conviction
6 Prevention and treatment
7 Statistics
8 False accusation
9 History
9.1 Definitions and evolution of laws
9.2 Social views and constructs of rape
9.3 War rape
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
Etymology of term
The term rape originates in the Latin rapere, from raptus, "to snatch, to grab, to carry off".[21][22] The term has come to mean, since approximately the 14th century, "to seize and take away by force".[1] In Roman law in the carrying off of a woman by force, with or without intercourse, constituted "raptus".[22] Medieval English law this could refer to crimes against the person, either kidnapping or rape in the modern sense of "sexual violation.[21] "The orginal meaning of "carry off by force" is still found in some phrases, such as "rape and pillage" or in titles, such as the story of the Rape of the Sabine Women or the poem The Rape of the Lock, which is about the theft of a...

References: Main article: False accusation of rape
The largest and most rigorous study was commissioned by the British Home Office and based on 2,643 sexual assault cases (Kelly, Lovett, and Regan, 2005)
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