Radiation

Good Essays
Topics: Mobile phone, GSM
Biological Effects of Cell Tower Radiation on Human Body
Neha Kumar (Director, WILCOM Technologies Pvt. Ltd.) Prof. Girish Kumar (I.I.T Bombay) ISMOT- 2009

OBJECTIVE
Radiation measurements near the cell towers EMF exposure Safety norms Review Biological effects (far below current standards) Radiation Shield (reduce Radiation levels)

Electromagnetic Radiations
Radiation emitted from Cell Phones, Cell phone towers, Wi-Fi, TV and FM towers, microwave ovens, etc are called Electromagnetic radiations and are known to cause significant biological effects on the human body and health of animals.

Cell Tower Statistics in India
4.25 lakhs 3.75 lakhs

Current (2009)

Predicted (2010)

Antennas on Cell tower transmit in the frequency range of: • 869 - 890 MHz (CDMA) • 935 - 960 MHz (GSM900) • 1805 – 1880 MHz (GSM1800) • 2110 – 2170 MHz (3G)*

Microwave radiation effects are classified as: •Thermal •Non-thermal The current exposure safety standards are mainly based on the thermal effects, which are inadequate.

EXPERIMENT: Radiation level measurements near

several Cell Tower sites
A broadband monopole antenna of gain = 2 dB was used to measure radiated power by various cell phone towers (CDMA, GSM900 and GSM1800)

50m

100m

Measured Power -20 to -30 dBm (in dBm) For each frequency bands

-30 to -50 dBm

Theoretical calculations
Power Received Pr by an antenna at a distance R is given by:

Pt × Gt × Area  λ  Pr = = Pt × Gt × Gr ×   2 4πR  4πR 
For a transmitter power of Pt = 20 W, transmitting antenna gain of Gt = 10 dB, receiving monopole antenna of gain Gr = 2 dB, the received power at R = 50 m is: At 887 MHz, Pr = -10.2 dBm At 945 MHz, Pr = -10.8 dBm At 1872 MHz,Pr = -16.7 dBm

2

• Measured power is less than theoretically calculated power as the concrete wall provides some attenuation and also these buildings were not directly in the direction of maximum radiation of transmitting antenna. • A mobile phone requires

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