Race and Corrections
Arizona State University
CRJ 305- Laura Owen
Minorities remain overrepresented in crime, offending, victimization, and all stages of the criminal justice process especially confinement. Overrepresentation alludes to a situation in which a greater part of a particular group is present at various stages within the justice system than would be expected based on its part in the general population (Rosich, 2007). Minorities have always had a larger population in the prison system and after the Civil War they were overrepresented in American prison. There are a few reasons as to why races are disproportionately which are denial of jobs, poverty, and it is felt that police have bias and African-Americans and Hispanics are treated differently than Whites.
Correctional departments usually supervise inmates sentenced to probation, jail, and prison. There is so much more that falls into what the correctional system takes care of. With more than 70% of persons in the corrections phase of the criminal justice system they are actually supervised in the community and in other forms such as fines, community service, drug and alcohol treatment, probation, home confinement, and intensive probation supervision. The American corrections started because of the European workhouses. The first type of institution was opened in Amsterdam in 1596 to hold vagrants and other minor offenders. In the United States the Walnut Street Jail began to receive its first prisoners in 1776 and became our first prison.
Gangs are usually comprised of racial/ethnic persons. There are some legendary gangs which include the Mexican Mafia, Black Guerrilla Family, Aryan Brotherhood, and Texas Syndicate. Correctional facilities segregate gangs into separate units, prison informants, isolating gang leaders, locking down institutions, prosecuting gang members who engage in crime, interfering with gang communications, and scrutinizing gang offenses...
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BOP: Quick Facts. (2013, June 29). Retrieved August 4, 2013, from http://www.bop.gov/news/quick.jsp
Gabbidon, S. L., & Greene, H. T. (2013). Chapter 7: The Death Penalty. In Race and crime (3rd ed., pp. 237-245). Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.
Mackenzie, D. L. (2001). Sentencing and Corrections in the 21st Century: Setting the Stage for the Future. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
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The Sentencing Project News - New Publication: Trends in U.S. Corrections. (2012, May 18). Retrieved August 10, 2013, from http://www.sentencingproject.org/detail/news.cfm?news_id=1304
U.S. prison populations: Trends and implications. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/1044.pdf
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