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Quiz 4 Study guide physio 201 advanced physiology

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Quiz 4 Study Guide
Cardiovascular Physiology
 Blood flow through the heart starting with the vena cavae and ending with the aorta, and including the Valves. IVC/SVC → Right atrium→TRIcupsid valve→ right ventricle →Pulmonary valve → Pulmonary arteries →Lungs →Pulmonary Veins→ left atrium →mitral/bicuspid valve→ Left ventricle→ aortic valve →Aorta → body  SA node and AV node functions and locations SA node= upper, right atrium→heart rate AV node=lower, right atrium→ Relays cardiac impulses to the atrioventricular bundle  Systole and diastole - what is happening during each of them? diastole=relaxation systole=contraction
During diastole, the atria and ventricles of your heart relax and begin to fill with blood. At the end of diastole, your heart's atria contract (atrial systole) and pump blood into the ventricles. The atria then begin to relax. Next, your heart's ventricles contract (ventricular systole) and pump blood out of your heart.
 The average ventricular stroke volume  Label the EKG peaks according to the heart events that produce them: P wave, QRS complex, and T wave.  The two types of myocardial cells and their functions cardiomyocytes and the cardiac pacemaker cells
 Intercalated discs, desmosomes, and gap junctions - where are they, what are they, what are their functions? Intercalated discs: are cross-bands that separate the opposing ends of cardiac muscle cells. They help to hold adjacent cells together and transmit the force of contraction from cell to cell. They allow the diffusion of ions between the cells. This makes it possible for muscle impulses to travel rapidly from cell to cell. Desmosomes= a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion. They provide mechanical stability. Gap junctions= are cylindrical channels between animal cells that let molecules and ions pass from one cell to another; allow adjacent cells in animal tissues to communicate with one another
 The three cations involved in myocardial cell action potentials. Guess: Na+, Ca2-, K+
 Autorhythmic cell depolarization - slow Na+ into cell, fast Ca2+ into cell  Contractile cell depolarization - fast Na+ into cell, slow Ca2+ into cell
 Three ways substances move out of the capillaries into the interstitial fluid Filtration, Diffusion, Diapedesis
 Hydrostatic pressure - what is it and what does it do in the capillaries? HP is the pressure exerted inside of the capillaries. It pushes substances out of the capillaries
 Osmotic pressure - what is it and what does it do in the capillaries? OP is the pressure exerted on the outside of the capillary when the movement of whater goes from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution.
 Filtration and reabsorption occur where in the capillaries? filtration occurs at the arteriolar end and reabsorption occurs at the venule end of the capillary
 What happens to fluid that remains in the interstitial fluid rather than being reabsorbed into the capillaries?

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