Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition
Chapter 15: Sense Organs
Answers to Quick Check Questions
1. Mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, photoreceptors, and osmoreceptors. 2. The general sense organs consist of microscopic receptors widely distributed throughout the body in the skin, mucosa, connective tissues, muscle tendons, joints, and viscera. The special senses are characterized by receptors grouped closely together or located in specialized organs. 3. Exteroceptors, visceroceptors (or interoceptors), and proprioceptors. 4. Pain: nociceptors. Touch: Merkel disks, Meissner corpuscle, Ruffini corpuscle, and Krause corpuscle. Pressure: Pacinian corpuscle and Meissner corpuscle. Stretch: muscle spindles and Golgi tendon receptors.
5. Olfaction, taste, hearing, equilibrium, and vision.
6. If the level of the odor-producing chemicals dissolved in the mucus surrounding the olfactory cilia reaches a threshold, a receptor potential and then an action potential will be generated and passed to the olfactory nerves in the olfactory bulb. 7. Generation of a receptor potential begins when specialized areas called G protein receptor sites on the cell membranes or porelike ion channels in the covering gustatory hairs bind to taste-producing chemicals in the saliva. The nature and concentration of the chemicals that bind to either the G protein receptor sites or ion channels determine how fast the receptor potential is generated. 8. An action potential generated from the receptor potential travels to the olfactory nerves in the olfactory bulb. From there, the impulse passes through the olfactory tract and into the thalamic and olfactory centers of the brain for interpretation, integration, and memory storage. The taste sensation begins with creation of a receptor potential in the gustatory cells of a taste bud. The generation and propagation of an action potential then transmit the sensory input to the brain. 9. Sour,...
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