Before executing any survey a researcher should ask himself few questions in particular: * why you are asking the questions
* who the results are for
* what you expect to ﬁnd from the answers
* how you are going to analyse the data when you get them If you reﬂect on these questions, it will be easier to compose more appropriate, accurate questions that provide useful ﬁndings. This reﬂection should also help to understand which method will be the most appropriate for particular needs. The choice of method therefore depends on the questions that researcher want answered. If he want to know what people do in a particular situation then a questionnaire will probably be sufﬁcient. If its to identify why something has occurred, a questionnaire will provide less valid responses than in-depth interviews or focus groups because in-depth interviews and focus groups allow the respondent the freedom to express things in context that may not have thought of before. This course work is dedicated to the questionnaire method of research in management. The work is separated into two parts: part one is giving an overview information of about questionnaires and part two is consider questionnaires as a research method in different type of management.
Questionnaire is a formalized set of questions, usually paper based or delivered online, submitted for replies that can be analyzed for usable information: * social research
* marketing research
* management research
Questionnaire design process
1. Specify the Information needed
2. Specify the Type of Interviewing method
As it was said before each research should begin with some common steps such as specifying the necessary information and deciding which method of interviewing should be conducted for this particular research including all the advantages and possible obstacles. Also the researcher should assess what information will be sought after a thorough scanning of secondary sources of data and determine the target respondent. 3. Decide on the type of questionnaire and its structure
4. Evaluation of question content. Before including a question in the schedule, examine whether: * This question is really essential
* The respondent can understand the question. (i.e. is it too technical, ambiguous, or advanced for the target respondent?) * The respondent can answer the question. (Say, the respondents possess sufficient knowledge. As such, it is better not to ask too much of factual data or about past history.) * The respondent will answer the question. Specially, if it invades into one's privacy or it requires too much effort to answer, then they usually refuse to cooperate 5. Check question phrasing. For Example
* Do words have ambiguity in meaning?
* Are there any implied alternatives in the question?
* Are there some assumptions to be made to answer the question'? * Will the respondents approach the question from the same frame of reference as designed by the researcher? 6. Determine form of response to each question:
The response format may be open or closed ended. In general, the type of response format will depend on the objective of the research, nature of data to be collected and analysis to be performed. 7. Determine sequence of questions.
* Use simple and interesting opening questions
* Put the questions in logical manner
* Ask for classificatory data at the end
8. Assess the physical layout of the questionnaire. Naturally, the questionnaire must be printed properly; put in elegant form and facilitate handling.
9. Pre-test the questionnaire.
It is normal practice to pretest a questionnaire on a small number of target respondents. The pretest is done to assess both individual questions and their sequence of response pattern. Accordingly, a researcher must revise questions which cause problems. While developing a questionnaire, researcher must: *...
Bibliography: 2. Adams, Anne and Cox, Anna L. (2008). Questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups. In: Cairns, Paul and Cox, Anna L. eds. Research Methods for Human Computer Interaction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
4. Developing a Questionnaire (Real world research). Bill Gillham. Continuum (1 Jun 2000)
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