W ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM COKES AND COALS FOR EXPORT SPECIFICATIONSREQUIRED IN USE OF SPECIALTY PRODUCTS AND UTILlTY FUELS U A. J. Edmond Co. 1530 West 16th Street, Long Beach, CA 90813
w, J. Baker, Daniel Murray, Robert Llerena, Jefiey G. Rolle James Keywords:
petroleum coke, coal export quality
Quality of petroleum cokes and coals has been evaluated for export specificationsrequired in use of specialty products and utility bels. Various green and calcined cokes, produced at refineries m California, and coals for shipment are sampled at California and national ports, and analyzed by using ASTM Methods. Quality analysis reports include: proximate and ultimate analyses, metals, tu, density, size distribution, hardgrove grindability, and other physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Some of recent analysis results liom calcined petroleum coke produced for aluminum n anode grade, green (raw) coke used i calcination, petroleum coke for high- and low-Btu fuel grade, low- and high-rank coals are compared and presented. QC/QA/SQC programs have been utilized for good precision and accuracy of data generated with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. INTRODUCTION
The A. J. Edmoud Co. has over 30 years extensive experience specialized in analysis, testing and evaluation of petroleum cokes and coals for export specifications, which are used primarily as solid fuels in power plants and cement kitus and in other applications to produce specialty products, carbon anodes, metallurgical cokes, etc Process development services currently provided include consulting,training, and process studies in production of calcined petroleum cokes for aluminum anode-grade. Quality ofpetroleum cokes was evaluated by Rolle, et. aL [ 1,2], investigating the effects of metal impurities (vanadium, nickel and sodium) on the properties of cokes and anodes. The quality ofpetroleum cokes produced by U. S. refineries bas been affected by several major governing factors during the past decade ftom 1984 to 1993: (1) declining quality of crude oils, (2) coke production increase, (3) market demand and supply in liquidsolid fuels and exports, (4) specifications for end-use products, and ( 5 ) coking processes and calcination technology . The average API gravity of crude oils declined annually by 0.17 degree/yr iiom 33 to 3 1; and the average sulfur content of crude oils increased by 0.029 wt%/yr from 0.88 to 1.21. As a result the coke production steadily increased by 5 1 % expecting continuous increase in the coming years, and the sulfur content of cokes is projected to increase liom current average, 4.5 wt% to 5.5 wt% in future.
The U. S. coking capacity was fully utilized in 1993 having more than 100% coke production factor. The annual production was 78,430 tondcd, of which 66% was exports (a major market demand) to Japan, Turkey, Italy, and other countries (total 44). The price ofpetroleum coke varies highly dependent upon its quality estimating in the range of $1 9/tOO for utility fuel-grade to $550/ton for calcined super-premium needle coke. Anodsgrade coke can vary from $45/ton for green (raw) to %200/tonfor calcined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the petroleum coke quality for export primarily based on recent analysis results ftom calcined petroleum coke produced for aluminum anode grade, green (raw) coke used in calcination, petroleum coke for high- and low-Btu fuel grade, and m addition the quality of low- and high-rank coals is evaluated.
smmrnc AND PREPARATION
Representative samples ofpetroleum cokes and coals have been obtained ftom various refineries in California and storage facilities at numerous national ports. "he auto sampler installed at the Long Beach port is sometimes used upon client's request for periodic routine sampling ofblends for shipment. Laboratory samples are prepared for quality analysis following the procedures and n principles in handling listed i the ASTM Methods D 346, D...
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