1a) The first assumption is that behaviour is influenced by the tripartite personality and the conflicts between these 3 parts. An example is that depression may be caused by an over dominant superego leading to low self-esteem.
The second assumption is that behaviour is influenced by ego defence mechanisms in the unconscious mind. Conflicts between the id, ego and superego create anxiety and therefore the ego protects itself with a range of defence mechanisms. Examples of defence mechanisms are Displacement, Denial, Repression and projection. An example is Little Hans who displaced his fear of his father onto white horses.
1b) Freud assumes that the personality consists of three parts the id, ego and superego and people differ in the extent to which their personality is dominated by the three parts. Freud developed the psychosexual stages of development and if a child is frustrated or over-indulged at one of these stages they become fixated and this results in distinct adult personality types The first stage is the oral stage where pleasure is gained from the bottom and this affects the ability to form relationships with others & accept their affection. At the anal stage pleasure is gained through the anus and this affects the ability to deal with authority and to have a balance between being orderly and being disorganised. A person who is frustrated at this stage they may have an Anal Retentive personality which makes them neat, stingy, precise, orderly and stubborn. At the phallic stage focus is on the genitals, Personality develops from identifying with the same sex parent leading to the development the superego and gender identity. The phallic personality can be calm, responsible and happy. At the genital stage pleasure is gained from genitals. The child who has a healthy resolution of conflicts at this stage develops the kind of personality that is a well-adjusted, mature adult who is able to love and be loved,