py 352 exam 1

Topics: Motivation, Tabula rasa, Developmental psychology Pages: 6 (1171 words) Published: April 17, 2015
Constructivist Revolution
August 25

How were children viewed back in the day and how are they viewed now?

A passive recipient of socialization forces to someone who actively constructs their environment

What is a model?

An assumption or hypothesis about development

How are models classified?

Simple or complex

How does a scholar’s model differ from the way most of our interpretations?

We think they are implicit, but scholars think they are formal or explicit

What do models represent?

The role of genetics, the environment, the child, and the need for past as prologue

What does the past as prologue mean?

The degree to which it is deemed necessary to consider the past to understand the present

What does the born this way model emphasize?

Role of genetics in development

What does the born this way model discredit?

The environment

What did behaviorism represent?

Children as passive recipients of socialization influences

Which model was the most popular when Piaget first came into the picture?

Nurture model

Who said that humans are blank slates?

John Locke

What is the term used for blank slate?

Tabula Rasa

What does the blank slate theory mean?

Individuals are built without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception

What did Watson believe to be true about why children develop the way that they do?

Observing children, rather than speculating on their ancestry

Did Watson agree with John Locke’s blank slate theory?


What was Watson’s view on development in general?

Complex motives and behaviors can be built upon via classical conditioning

What was the study Watson used to prove his point?

Little albert and conditioned fear

Watson’s famous quote was known for what?

No matter who you are and where you come from, you can turn into anything

What is classical conditioning?

The association of some behaviors with specific stimuli and even show how some stimuli that now elicit responses might not have done so once in the past

How did Watson make the little boy afraid of rats?

He made an obnoxious sound every time the boy reached for the rat, he was not afraid of rats before but became so with time

Why was classical conditioning not a successful theory?

Hard to test scientifically, absurdly complicated as an explanation for motivated behavior (usually just a simple emotional response)

What did skinner believe to be true about how children develop?

The environment was primary source of explanation for behavior, useless to study the brain and thinking processes

What did skinner emphasize the most when it came to understanding thoughts?

We have brains, but you did not need to understand thoughts to understand behavior

What did skinner call thought?

The “black box”

What did skinner believe to be true about understanding behavior?

Relations between what goes on in the environment and how the organism behaves

What was different about what Watson believed and what skinner believed?

Skinner didn’t think that classical conditioning was all that important , he believed that behavior is predicted by rewards and punishments

What is reinforcement?

Things happen more frequently if they are rewarded

What is extinction?

When rewards are taken away, the behavior is likely to stop happening

What is punishment?

Instead of something satisfying happening, something adverse followed

What did bandura believe to be true about development?

People learn things observationally and imitating others (role model)

What is the critical distinction in knowledge and performance?

Even if we know how to do something we don’t always do it

What did bandura believe about the brain?

Behavior is cognitively based

What did bandura believe to be the most powerful motive in development?

Self-efficacy: one’s belief in his/her...
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