How were children viewed back in the day and how are they viewed now?
A passive recipient of socialization forces to someone who actively constructs their environment
What is a model?
An assumption or hypothesis about development
How are models classified?
Simple or complex
How does a scholar’s model differ from the way most of our interpretations?
We think they are implicit, but scholars think they are formal or explicit
What do models represent?
The role of genetics, the environment, the child, and the need for past as prologue
What does the past as prologue mean?
The degree to which it is deemed necessary to consider the past to understand the present
What does the born this way model emphasize?
Role of genetics in development
What does the born this way model discredit?
What did behaviorism represent?
Children as passive recipients of socialization influences
Which model was the most popular when Piaget first came into the picture?
Who said that humans are blank slates?
What is the term used for blank slate?
What does the blank slate theory mean?
Individuals are built without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception
What did Watson believe to be true about why children develop the way that they do?
Observing children, rather than speculating on their ancestry
Did Watson agree with John Locke’s blank slate theory?
What was Watson’s view on development in general?
Complex motives and behaviors can be built upon via classical conditioning
What was the study Watson used to prove his point?
Little albert and conditioned fear
Watson’s famous quote was known for what?
No matter who you are and where you come from, you can turn into anything
What is classical conditioning?
The association of some behaviors with specific stimuli and even show how some stimuli that now elicit responses might not have done so once in the past
How did Watson make the little boy afraid of rats?
He made an obnoxious sound every time the boy reached for the rat, he was not afraid of rats before but became so with time
Why was classical conditioning not a successful theory?
Hard to test scientifically, absurdly complicated as an explanation for motivated behavior (usually just a simple emotional response)
What did skinner believe to be true about how children develop?
The environment was primary source of explanation for behavior, useless to study the brain and thinking processes
What did skinner emphasize the most when it came to understanding thoughts?
We have brains, but you did not need to understand thoughts to understand behavior
What did skinner call thought?
The “black box”
What did skinner believe to be true about understanding behavior?
Relations between what goes on in the environment and how the organism behaves
What was different about what Watson believed and what skinner believed?
Skinner didn’t think that classical conditioning was all that important , he believed that behavior is predicted by rewards and punishments
What is reinforcement?
Things happen more frequently if they are rewarded
What is extinction?
When rewards are taken away, the behavior is likely to stop happening
What is punishment?
Instead of something satisfying happening, something adverse followed
What did bandura believe to be true about development?
People learn things observationally and imitating others (role model)
What is the critical distinction in knowledge and performance?
Even if we know how to do something we don’t always do it
What did bandura believe about the brain?
Behavior is cognitively based
What did bandura believe to be the most powerful motive in development?
Self-efficacy: one’s belief in his/her...
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