UNIT 19 CONCEPT OF SWARAJ, SATYAGRAHA AND CRITIQUE OF WESTERN CIVILISATION Structure
19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3
Objectives Introduction The Civilisational Justification and British Rule 19.2.1 Gandhi, Moderates and the Extremists on the Legitimacy of British Rule
Gandhi's Hind Swaraj
19.3.1 Gandhi, Extremists and British Colonialism 19.3.2 Gandhi, Moderates and British Colonialism 19.3.3 Gandhi on Swaraj
Gandhi's Critique of Modern Civilisation
19.4.1 Western Influences on Gandhi 19.4.2 Meaning of True Civilisation 19.4.3 Critique of Modern Civilisation
Political, Economic and Moral Dimensions of Swaraj: More Detail 19.5.1 19.5.2 19.5.3 19.5.4 19.5.5 Definition and Meaning Swaraj or Participatory Democracy Swaraj and Freedom Purna Swaraj Purna Swaraj: The Economic Dimension
Gandhi's Revised Views on Modern Civilisation and Swaraj
19.6.1 Long-standing Appreciation of Civil Liberties Guaranteed by Modern Liberalism 19.6.2 Gandhi Raj
19.7.1 19.7.2 19.7.3 19.7.4 19.7.5 Early Experiments Meaning Principles on which Based Ahimsa and Satyagraha Tapas
Some Critical Remarks on Gandhi's Views
19.8.1 Attitude Towards Western Modernity 19.8.2 lmpract~calityof Satyagraha 19.8.3 Assessment of Westerners
19.9 Let Us Sum Up 19.10 Some Useful Books 19.11 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises
As you can see from the title, this unit deals with Mahatma Gandhi and his views on Modern Civilisation, his conceptions of Swaraj and Satyagraha as well as his critique of Western Civilisation. After going through the unit, you should be able to: Discuss Gandhi's views on modecn civilisation Explain his concepts of Swaraj and Satyagraha Discuss his critique of the West and Comment on his relevance in present day lndia
In this unit you will mainly study about Gandhi's concepts of Swaraj and Satyagraha as well as his critique of Western civilization. The unit will familiarize yr;u with the key concepts of Gandhian thought.
Candhism :Evolution and Character
19.2 THE CIVILIZATIONAL JUSTIFICATION I AND BRITISH RULE
Sir Jayson-Hicks, the British Home Secretary said in 1924; "We did not conquer India for the benefit of Indians ..... We conquered India as an outlet for the good of Great Britain. We conquered India by the sword. We should hold it .... We hold it as the finest outlet for British goods in general and for Lancashire cotton goods in particular." Some other British theorists and statesmen, however, maintained that they were in India not for their own benefit but for India's good. They claimed that they came as trustees or bearers of thq*"White Man's Burden" of enlightening, civilizing or modernising India. Such a view was held, for instance, by Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of Ipdia from 1898 to 1905. In his convocation address to Calcutta University in 1905, he said that "truth took a high place in the moral codes of the West before it had been similarly honoured in the East, where craftiness and diplomatic vile have always been held in much repute." On ailater occasion, Curzon maintained that India's Swaraj would have to come either from the British Parliament or through violence. Mahatma Gandhi vehemently opposed both Curzon's civilisational justification of British colonialism and his prognosis that India's Swaraj would have to come either from the British or through violence. Gandhi argued that dharma or satya had a central place in lndian tradition and that it was wrong for the British t o claim any monopoly,or superiority in matters of truth or morality. Against Curzon, Gandhi also niaintainedhhat lndian Swaraj w ~ u l d come neither from the British Parliament nor through violence but through the-non-violent direct action (i.e. Satyagraha) of the people of lndia.
19.2.1 Gandhi, Moderates and Extremists on the Legitimacy of British Rule Befare going oh to analyse the features of Gandhi's unique...
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