UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD
THE ABSENCE OF GENDER
ALL MALE PLAYS
(WITH REFERENCE TO BECKETT’S AND PINTER’S SELECTED WORKS)
SUBMITTED TO THE COUNCIL OF THE
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR WOMEN
THE UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS
IKHLAS MUHAMMED NATI
ASST. PROF. MAYADA KASSIM Al-Gailani
بِسِمِ اَلله الرَحمنَ الَرَحَيم
وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلإِنَسنِ إِلآَّ مَا سَعَى* وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَى*
صَدَقَ اَللهُ العَظيم
(سورة النجم 39-40)
I certify that this thesis was prepared under my supervision at the University of Baghdad as a partial requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature.
In view of the available recommendations, I forward this thesis for debate by the Examining Committee.
Chairman of the English Department
Committee on Graduate Studies
in English Literature
We certify that we have read this thesis and as Examining Committee examined the student in its context and that in our opinion it is adequate as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature.
Approved for the Council of the College of Education for Women.
Dean of the College of Education for Women
To my mother’s soul,
may God bless her.
And to my father,
for all his love and support.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION: THE THEATRE OF
THE ABSURD: HISTORICAL
CHAPTER TWO - THE ABSENCE OF GENDER IN
BECKETT’S ALL MALE PLAYS
Waiting for Godot (1953)
Krapp’s Last Tape (1958)
That Time (1976)
A Piece of Monologue (1979)
CHAPTER THREE - THE ABSENCE OF GENDER IN
PINTER’S ALL MALE PLAYS
The Caretaker (1960)
The Dumb Waiter (1960)
The Dwarfs (1960)
No Man’s Land (1975)
ABSTRACT IN ARABIC
I would like to express my sincere thanks, gratitude and admiration to my supervisor, Asst. Prof. Mayada Kassim Al-Gailani, for the invaluable encouragement, assistance and patience she has shown during the time of writing the thesis. I would like to extend my thanks to the dean of the college, head of the department and the staff of English department in general. Special thanks are also to my instructors during the courses. My sincere thanks are also due to my friends Mayada Zuhair, Rwayda Ahmed and Maysoon Taheer for their support. Thanks are also due to the librarians of Ikra’a Library for providing me with references. Finally, my family members, especially my sister, deserve a word of thanks for their patience, love and cooperation.
In the meaningless and faithless age past-second world war, it was no longer possible to keep using such traditional art forms and standards that had ceased being convincing and lost their validity for this the emergence of a new kind of theatre was needed in such circumstances. Thus, the Theatre of the Absurd came as a reaction to the disorder, chaos and absurdity people faced at those horrible times. Two prominent twentieth-century playwrights, Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) and Harold Pinter (1930- ), portrayed this absurdity and difficulties of modern age in a novel way. They attempted seriously to show, in their dramatic treatments, the dilemma of obliterated figures who are unable to feel their own...
Bibliography: Alvarez, A. Beckett. Fontana: Collins, 1973.
Asmus, Walter D. “Rehearsal Notes for the German Premiere of Beckett’s That Time and Footfalls.” Journal of Beckett Studies. Vol. 2. Summer, 1977.
Baker, William and Tabachnick, Stephen Ely. Harold Pinter. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1973.
Barzun, Jacques. “From Darwin, Marx, Wagner: Critique of Heritage.” In Great Issues in Western Civilization, 4th edited by Brian Tieney, Donald Kagan and L. Pearce Williams. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1992.
Bateso, F. W., I. Donaldson, W. J. Harvey and C. B. Ricks ed. Essays in Criticism: A Quarterly Journal of Literary Criticism. Oxford: The Holy Well Press, Ltd., April, 1966.
Beckett, Samuel. That Time. London: Faber and Faber, 1976.
. Krapp’s Last Tape and Embers. London: Faber and Faber, 1979.
. Three Occasional Pieces. London: Faber and Faber, 1982.
. Waiting for Godot. London: Faber and Faber, 1982.
. Endgame. London: Faber and Faber, 1985.
Boulton, James T
Bradbury, Malcolm and Christopher Bigsby ed. Harold Pinter. London: Methuen Co. Ltd., 1983.
Brater, Enoch. Why Beckett. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1989.
Burkman, Katherine. The Dramatic World of Harold Pinter: Its Basis in Ritual. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1971.
Camus, Albert. “The Myth of Sisyphus.” Translated by Justin O’Brien. Great Britain: Penguin Books, 1955.
Chamber, Ross. “Beckett’s Brinkmanship.” In Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Martin Esslin. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.
Coe, Richard N. Beckett. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1964.
Cohn, Ruby. “Philosophical Fragments in the Work of Samuel Beckett.” In Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Martin Esslin. London: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1965.
. “The World of Harold Pinter.” In Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Arthur Ganz. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
. “Outward Bound Soliloquies.” Journal of Modern Literature, Vol. VI, February, 1977.
Cohn, Ruby and Bernard Dukore, ed. Twentieth Century Drama: England, Ireland, The United States. New York: Random House, 1966.
Conner, Steven. Samuel Beckett: Repetition Theory and Text. New York: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1988.
Corrigan, Robert W. The World of the Theatre. London: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1979.
Dukore, Bernard F
Ellman, Richard. Four Dubliners: Wilde, Yeats, Joyce and Beckett. London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd., 1987.
Esslin, Martin. “Godot and His Children.” In Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.
. The Theatre of the Absurd. London: Eyre and Spottiswood, 1966.
. “Introduction.” In Absurd Drama: Amedée and Other Plays. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1987.
. Pinter: The Playwright. 4th ed. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1982.
Fleming, William. Art and Ideas. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1961.
Fletcher, B. J.; Fletcher, B. Smith; W. Bachem. A Student’s Guide to the Plays of Samuel Beckett. London: Faber and Faber, 1978.
Ford, Boris, ed. The Modern Age. Vol. 7. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961.
. The Present. Vol. 8. England: Penguin Books, 1983.
Ganz, Arthur. “Introduction.” In Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Arthur Ganz. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
Gascoigne, Bamber. Twentieth-Century Drama. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1962.
Gassner, John and B. F. Dukore. A Treasury of the Theatre: From Henrik Ibsen to Robert Lowell. Vol. II. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1935.
Goetz, Philip W. ed. “Existentialism.” In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago University Press, 1986.
Goodman, Randolph. Drama on Stage. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978.
Gordon, Lois G. Strategems to Uncover Nakedness: The Dramas of Harold Pinter. Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
Hall, Ann C. A Kind of Alaska: Women in the Plays of O’Neill, Pinter and Shepard. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.
Hinchliffe, Arnold P. The Absurd: The Critical Idiom. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1969.
Hoffman, Frederick. Samuel Beckett: The Man and His Works. London: Forum House Company, 1969.
Holman, C. Hugh. A Handbook to Literature. Fourth edition. Indianapolis: The Bolls-Mervill Co. Inc., 1985.
Ionesco, Eugene, “Amedée.” Translated by Donald Watson. In Absurd Drama. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1973.
Kerr, Walter. Harold Pinter. New York. Columbia University Press, 1967.
Kershaw, John. The Present Stage: New Direction in the Theatre Today. London: Fontana Books, 1966.
Lahar, John. “Pinter and Chekhov: The Band of Naturalism.” In Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Arthur Ganz. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
Leech, Clifford. “Two Romantics: Arnold Wesker and Harold Pinter.” In Contemporary Theatre. Edited by H. A. Smith. London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1968.
Lyons, Charles R. Samuel Beckett. London: Macmillan, 1983.
Marrin, David. “Scenes Tackle Realism, Absurdity.” (February 2004, URI:http://www.sccs.swarth-more-edul.) Retrieved Dec. 2003.
Moore, Harry T. Twentieth-Century French Literature. London: Heinemann Educational Book Ltd., 1966.
Morriso, Kristin. “The Rip Word in a Piece of Monologue.” Vol. XXV, 1982.
Pesta, John. “Pinter’s Usurpers.” In Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays. Edited by Arthur Ganz. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
Pinter, Harold. The Dumb Waiter. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1960.
. No Man’s Land. London: Eyre Methuen, 1975.
. “Introduction: Writing for the Theatre.” In Plays: One. London: Eyre Methuen, 1976.
. The Caretaker. London: Eyre Methuen, 1977.
. “The Dwarfs.” In Plays: One. London: Eyre Methuen, 1980.
Quigley, Austin E. The Pinter Problem. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
Reid, Alec. All I can Manage, More Than I Could: An Approach to the Plays of Samuel Beckett. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1968.
Robbe, Alain. “Samuel Beckett, or Presence.” In The Theatre in Martin Esslin: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.
Rustam, Aneed Thanwan. “Man’s Suffering in Beckett’s Waiting for Godot and Endgame.” In Al-Mustansiriya Literary Review. Baghdad: Al-Wataniya Press, 1985.
Selden, Raman. Practising Theory and Reading Literature: An Introduction. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1985.
Shorroks, Lucy. “Beckett Time, 2000: Seeing the world differently with Samuel Beckett.” July 2000 (http://www.beckett-time.demon.coukkl.) Retrieved May 2004.
Styan, J. L. The Dark Comedy: The Development of Modern Comic Tragedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
. Modern Drama in Theory and Practice: Symbolism, Surrealism and the Absurd. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Suvin, Darko. “Beckett’s Purgatory of the Individual.” Tulane Drama Review. Vol. II, Part 4, Summer, 1967.
Taylor, John Russell. “Introduction.” In Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed., John Russell Brown. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.
. Anger and after: A Guide to the New British Drama. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1969.
. Harold Pinter. Essex: Longmans Green and Co. Ltd., 1969.
. Harold Pinter. Great Britain: Longman Group Ltd., 1969.
Vanlennep, D. J. “The Hotel Room.” In Phenomenological Psychology, ed. Joseph J. Kochelmans. Dordrecht: Martinus Nighoff Publishers, 1987.
Williams, Raymond. Modern Tragedy. London: T. and A. Constable Ltd., 1966.
. Drama from Ibsen to Brecht. London: The Hogarth Press, 1968.
Worth, Katharine, ed. Beckett the Shape Changer. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.
Yasiri, al- Hussain. Educational Psychology. Translated by Dr. Muayad Jajo. College of Education for Women, 1999.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document