Public Policy Making: Theories and Their Implications in Developing Countries

Powerful Essays
38

PUBLIC POLICY MAKING: THEORIES
AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Ferdous Arfina Osman

P

ublic policy making is not merely a technical function of gov ernment; rather it is a complex interactive process influenced by the diverse nature of socio-political and other environmental forces.
These environmental forces that form the policy context lead to the variation in policies and influences the output and impact. Due to the contextual differences, public policies of the developed countries significantly differ from those of the developing countries. Although the policies of developed countries have proved their effectiveness in many cases, those cannot be applied in understanding the dynamics of the policy process of developing countries. Public policies in the developing countries possess certain peculiarities of their own by virtue of being influenced by an unstable socio-political environment, and face various problems and challenges. Poverty, malnutrition, ill health, illiteracy, low standards of living, unemployment and other common phenomena of these countries have also been creating a growing pessimism about the effectiveness of public policies. Given this situation, in developing countries, policy studies deserve urgent attention. The existing theories of policy making provide useful guidance for analysing the policies of developing countries but they are not quite sufficient for undertaking a comprehensive analysis. This is because most of the policy making theories were derived from the studies of industrially developed societies, which in most cases, are found insufficient to explain the policies of developing countries due to the contextual variations. The objective of this paper is to analyse the factors that make the existing theories inadequate to explain the policies of developing countries. To this end, the paper at first, briefly discusses the basic concepts of public policy making and identifies



Bibliography: Alford, Robert R. (1975) Health Care Politics: Ideological and Interest Group Barriers to Reform, Chicago: The University of Chicago Allsop, J. (1984) Health Policy and the NHS, Longman. Anderson, Charles, W. (1978) “The Logic of Public Problems: Evaluation in Comparative Policy Research,” in Ashford, Anderson, James, E. (1975) Public Policy Making, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Limited. Easton, David (1965) A Framework for Political Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, N Gilliat, Stephen (1984) “Public Policy Analysis and Conceptual Conservatism,” Policy and Politics, Vol.12, No.4, pp Green, Andrew (1992) An Introduction to Health Planning in Developing Countries, Oxford : Oxford University Press. Grindle, Merilee S. and Thomas, John W. (1991) Public Choices and Policy Change : The Political Economy of Reform in Developing Ham, Christopher, J. (1981) Policy Making in the National Health Service, London : Macmillan. Ham, Christopher and Hill, Michael (1993) The Policy Process in the Modern Capitalist State, 2nd Edition, Brighton: Harvester Heidenheimer, A. J.; Heclo, H.; and Adams, C.T. (1990) Comparative Public Policy : The Politics of Social Choice in America, Europe, Hill, Michael. ed., (1993) The Policy Process : A Reader, London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Jenkins, W. I. (1978) Policy Analysis: A Political and Organizational Perspective, Oxford : Martin Robertson. Lee, Kenneth and Mills, Anne (1982) Policy Making and Planning in the Health Sector, London and Sydney : Croom Helm. Mead, Lawrence, M. (1977) “Health Policy: The Need for Governance”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Paarlberg, Robert L. (1987) “Political Markets for Agricultural Protection : Understanding and Improving Their Function” Paper Paton, Calum R. (1990) US Health Politics, Avebury. Paton, Calum (1996) Health Policy and Management : The Health Care Agenda in a British Political Context, London : Chapman and Roemer, Milton, I. (1991) National Health Systems of the World, Volume One : The Countries, Oxford : Oxford University Press. Rose, Richard (ed.), (1969) Policy Making in Britain: A Reader in Government, Macmillan and Co Rose, Richard (1976) The Dynamics of Public Policy, London: Sage Publications Ltd. Walt, Gill (1994) Health Policy: An Introduction to Process and Power, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, London and New Wistow, Gerald (1992) “The Health Service Policy Community: Professionals Pre-eminent or Under Challenge?” in Marsh, David Wohl, Stanley, M.D. (1984) The Medical Industrial Complex, New York : Harmony Books, World Bank (1995) Trends in Developing Countries, The World Bank, Washington. (New York : MLA, 1969), pp. 5-55. W. P. Ker, Epic and Romance (1909; rpt, New York : Dover, 1957), p. 16.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful