Public Policy: Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.
PUBLIC POLICY - CONCEPT & MEANING:
Public Policy in the broad term refers to the policy (plan of what to do) that is formulated and implemented for the benefit of the public. If read in light of the narrow view of Public Policy then it relates to plan of action to be pursued by the Govt.(because Public is also used as a synonym for Government in many places).
There is no unanimity on the definition of Public Policy. However,Public Policy can be described as the overall framework within which the actions of the government are undertaken to achieve its goals. It is a purposive and consistent course of action devised in response to a perceived problem of a constituency, formulated by a specific political process, and adopted, implemented, and enforced by a public agency.
Goals,policies and programmes are different and should not be used as synonyms of each other or interchangeably. Policies are devised to achieve certain goals by the government,for example the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan is a govt. programme to achieve the Policy of Free and compulsory education to all children between 6-14 in India that was established through the Right to education act 2009 which is a part of meta policy of Education For All by UNESCO. Another example is the policy of poverty alleviation for which several programmes have been designed like the Integrated Rural Development Programme,MGNREGA,etc. Poverty alleviation also comes under a bigger goal of overall socio-economic growth of the country. Each of these programmes have their own goals to achieve which then all taken collectively achieve the unified goal of the original policy. There can be a number of programmes established for achievement of a single policy goal. And there are a number of policies that are formulated as well to achieve the goals of the govt. Once a policy is declared(statement of goals) then programmes are devised within/under it to take action through it to achieve those overall goals.
Public Policy is a document that contains the broad outline as well as the detailed description of formulation as well as implementation of various govt. programmes and plans that are taken out for the goal/objective of public benefit and implemented through the constitutional authorities,bureaucracy and government organisations/institutions in collaboration with civil society organisations. It takes a variety of forms like law,ordinances,court decisions,executive orders,decisions,etc.
It is the authoritative declaration of the intentions of the government of what it intends to do and to not do & the success of Public Administration as well as government in a country is linked with the success of its Public Policy.
Once a goal is determined then the government has to develop a broad outline/policy document to show how it will be worked towards and then once that is done,programmes are developed which are the executive wing of the govt. to achieve those goals. Then organisations and institutions are set up to house those programmes and organise personnel in it to achieve the particular programme's goals which will in cohesion with other programmes and their organisations under the same policy help achieve the policy's goals and that will help achieve the overall goal of the govt.
TYPES OF PUBLIC POLICIES:
1) Substantive Public Policy - These are the policies concerned with the general welfare and development of the society like provision of education and employment opportunities,economic stabilisation,law and order enforcement,anti pollution laws,etc are its examples. It does not cater to any particular or privileged section of society and have to be formulated dynamically keeping in mind the goals and characteristics of the constitution and directive...
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