Public Health

Topics: Demography, Mortality rate, Population Pages: 12 (1825 words) Published: July 13, 2015
Dr.Md.Abdul Waheed
Department of Public Health

Health Indicator
Health indicators are the tools with which we measure
the health status of a community.
 Uses of health indicators :
 i) To measures the health status of a community.
 ii) To compare the health status of one country with that

of another.
 iii) To assess the health need of the people.
 iv) To allocate the health resources.
 v) To monitor and evaluate of health services, activities and programmes.
 vi) To provide feedbacks for reprogramming for better use of resources and accelerating progress in' health

Criteria of health indicator/ideal
i. Should be valid i.e. they should actually measure

what they are supposed to measure.
ii. Should be reliable & objective, i.e. the answers
should be the same if measured by different
people in similar circumstances.
iii. Should be sensitive, i.e. they should be sensitive
to changes in the situation concerned.
iv. Should be specific, i.e. they should reflect
changes only in the situation concerned.
v. Should be feasible, i.e. they should have the
ability to obtain data needed and
vi. Should be relevant, i.e. they should contribute to
the understanding of the phenomenon of interest. 

In short :
Criteria of health indicator/ideal indicator:
i) Should be valid.
ii) Should be reliable and objective.
ii) Should be sensitive.
iii) Should be specific
iv) Should be feasible.
v) Should be relevant.

Indicators of health
1) Mortality indicators:
Crude death rate (CDR)
Expectation of life
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
Child mortality rate (CMR)
Under five proportionate mortality rate.
Maternal mortality rate (MMR)
Disease-specific mortality rate.
Proportional mortality rate.

2) Morbidity indicators:
Incidence & Prevalence
Notification rates
Attendance rate at out door patient, health
centres, etc.
Hospital admission , readmission & Hospital
discharge rate
Duration of stay in hospital
Spells of sickness or absence from work or

3) Disability rate: The disability rate falls into two groups. a)
Event type indicators:
 Number of days of restricted activity.
 Bed disability days.
 Work loss days (or school loss days) with in specified period. b)
Person-type indicators:

Limitation of mobility:
 Confined to bed
 Continued to house

Limitation of activity:
 Limitation to perform the basic activities of daily living (ADL) - eating, washing, dressing etc.
 Limitation in major activities ability to work at a job, ability to house work etc.

4) Nutritional status indicators:
Anthropometric measurement of preschool
children- e.g. Weight, height, mid upper arm
(MUAC), skin fold thickness, BMI
Height of children at school entry
Prevalence of low birth weight (Less than 2Skg)

5) Health cares delivery indicators:
Doctors population ratio
Doctors nurse ratio
Population bed ratio
Population per health centre/sub-centre
Population per traditional birth attendant.

6) Utilization rates:
 Example:
 Proportion of infants fully immunized against six EPI
 Proportion of pregnant women being delivered by trained
health personnel
 Proportion of pregnant women receiving antenatal care by trained health personnel
 Proportion of pregnant women receiving two doses of T.T.  Bed -occupancy rate.
 Percentage of the population is using various method of
family planning. Average length of stay in hospital.
 Patient turn over ratio.

7) Social and mental health indicator:
Homicide rate.
Suicide rate.
Drug and alcohol abuse rate.
Family violence rate.
Battered baby and battered wife syndromes rate.
Road traffic accidents rate.
Smoking rate.

8) Environmental health indicators:
•Proportion of population having access to safe sanitation •Proportion of population having...
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