In a workplace or an organization there are various problems that need to be solved. The decisions that are made are intended to solve problems and improve the quality of life for its citizens & employees. It needs to positively contribute to the organization- the process used for particular procedures is called policy making. A document needs to be approved by executives before it can be called a policy. A policy is goals or rules that should be followed by an organization to deal with problems. When making or constructing policies there are certain steps that need to be taken into consideration before implementing it. Such as: 1.
The study of policy making is important because if certain steps are missed within the policy, then implementing the policy will not be effective. Policy making is important for rules and decisions within a company or institution. Without rules and procedures, there will be chaos and everyone will do as they please. I will be critically analysing the policy making process in my assignment. Key actors in the policy making process
Individuals and institutions involved in implementing public policies: 1.
Public Officials: Successful policies depend on the insight of officials and legislation. When officials are making decisions concerning the policy he/she should do it as if they are personally implementing it. For example: Hanekom (1987, p.56) “The official is to think in terms of the ministers view…””…is expected to implement a policy with the same goodwill as the minister…” 2.
Legislators: Reports containing the implementation of a policy are made available to executive institutions in charge of executing policies. Legislation is a crucial step and never taken lightly by legislators. 3.
Interest Groups: When interest groups succeed having power over policy implementer, it can have a great impact on the policy and its implementation. For example: Hanekom (1987, p.58) “When the private sector is requested to help the Government to overcome the economic problems of the state.” 4.
Courts: Law enforcement is the duty of individuals appointed, example, lawyers. They do all the “administration” work, making them the public policy implementers. 5.
Community Institutions: These institutions are employed in the administration of Government tasks, these institutions could affect policy implementation. For example: Hanekom (1987, p.58)”Reserve police forces, voluntary traffic “wardens” who report traffic offences to the traffic authorities or voluntary associations who endeavour to prevent littering. Since different institutions are involved in policy implementation, they contribute to different approaches in policy implementation”
Models for policy analysis
Models are used to clarify and help a policy; it compares it to the real world.
According to Dye(1987, p.20) the models we use in studying policy are conceptual models. These are models which try to:
Broadens and clarify our thinking concerning public policy. •
Helps you identify key concepts of policy issues.
Helps you communicate having the policy’s best interest in mind. •
Helps you identify and understand what is important and unimportant. •
Helps you predict consequences that the policy may face.
Factors influencing Public Policy Making
Societal factors; for example, the change of urbanisation. •
Personnel matters; whether public officials and staff are available to provide input when policies are made. •
Resources (especially money) - these are necessary for implementing a policy. •
The state of the economy. For example “The views of creditors regarding the repayment of loans.”Hanekom(1987, p.15)
Steps of Policy Making Process
To create a policy, the attention has to be focused on the problem and why the policy is required. EXAMPLE: Illegal immigration has been going on for years but...
References: • Hanekom, S.X. (1987). Public Policy Framework and Instrument for Action. South Africa: Southern Book Publishers.
• Dye, T.R. (1987). Understanding Public Policy. 6th Ed. New Jersey: Simon and Shuster Englewood Cliffs
• Anderson, J.E. (1975). Public Policy Making. Great Britain: Thomas and Sons Ltd.
• Panter, M., & Pierre J. (2005). Challenges to State Policy Capacity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
• Athaus, C., Bridgman, P., Davis, G. (2007). Australian Policy Handbook. 4th Ed. Australia: Allen and Unwin
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