(i) Give a description of the following variables using appropriate graphical displays and summary statistics: gender; time; travel; type; number. Explain what these show about the typical travellers on the system.

a) Gender

According to the survey results and figure 1, the number of respondents for male is 114 and female is 86. This may suggest that there are more males than females travellers travel in the train.

b) Time

According to the survey results in figure 2, 47.5% of respondents travel in the evening time, 22.5% in the morning, 15% in the afternoon and late evening. This may suggest that evening time (4.30pm -9pm) is the peak time as more travellers taking the train during that time.

c) Travel

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According to figure 3 and summary statistics, mean travel time by travellers is 23.9 minutes with standard deviation error of 9.5. The minimum and maximum time spent by travellers is 8 and 40 minutes respectively. 12 respondents travel 26 minutes - the longest travel time in the train.

d) Type

According to the survey results in figure 4, 32% of the travelers use monthly pass, 26% uses weekly pass, 24.5% uses annual pass, 9% uses single or return day ticket and 8.5% uses free pass for retired person. This may suggest that most travelers use monthly pass to travel in the train.

e) Number

According to figure 5, 43% of the respondents travel on their own, 25.5% of the respondents travel in groups of 2, 14% in groups of 3 and 17.5% in groups of 4.

(ii) How safe do travellers feel? Use summary statistics and graphs to assess this, and also test whether the perception of safety on the system varies by gender or by the time of day when travel takes place.

According to Figure 6, 21.5% of travelers (highest number of respondents =43) feel somewhat less moderately unsafe. This is validated by summary statistics which shows the mean is 4.69 – almost at the middle but tilting towards the unsafe level.

H0 : There is no difference in the perception of safety between male and female travelers taking the train

H1 : There is a difference in the perception of safety between male and female travelers taking the

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train

The Levene’s sig.

value is 0.329 which is greater than 0.05 significant value, then equal variances is assumed, and moving along top row the significant value (2-tailed) for mean comparison is 0.741. Since the p-value = 0.741 which is greater than 0.05 sig level, we accept the null hypothesis at 5% significance level. Therefore there is no difference in the perception of safety between male and female travelers taking the train

H0 : There is no difference in the perception of safety between the groups in the time of day when travel takes place

H1 : There is a difference in the perception of safety at least in one group in the time of day when travel takes place

In the test above group 1= morning: 6am-12noon, group 2=afternoon: 12noon-4:30pm, group 3=evening: 4:30pm-9pm, group 4=late evening: after 9pm

Since p-value is 0.000 which is less than 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis at 1% significance level. Therefore this suggests there is a difference in the perception of safety at least in one group in the time of day when travel takes place.

Since significant value for test of Homegeneity is 0.010 which is less than 0.05, thus indicating that equality of variance cannot be assumed. When equality of variance cannot be assumed, we need to carry out alternative Games-Howell post-hoc

test.

The p-value for group 1 compare with group 3 and 4 = 0.000 which is less than 0.05, we reject null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis at 1% significance level. Therefore this suggests the perception of safety is different between group 1 with group 3 and group 4 while group 1 perception of safety is similar to group 2. In other words morning travelers’ perception of safety is different with travelers in the evening and late evening except afternoon travelers.