Psychosexual stages vs. psychosocial stages
In psychology when the word development is mention to two theorists, stand out. These theorists are Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Freud being the father of psychology changed the technique of studying the development of individuals. Erikson was influenced by Freud but he felt that be underestimated other significant dimension that shape our development. They both agreed that personality develop is mostly an unconscious process and when it does happen, it is over time and has universal stages. They believe that personality is developing through a sequence of predestined stages. In each stage, there is crisis that needs to be conquered in order to advance to the next stage in life. However, Freud believed the libido, person’s biology and basic needs are major factors in our development of personality (Simon & Gagnon). Although Freud’s theory influenced Erikson, instead he believed environment and culture were major factors that influenced our personality (Wallerstein, Robert & Goldberger, 2000). Freud called this development process psychosexual theory and Erikson called it psychosocial theory. Both have similarity within their theories as the age group are divided the same. Even so, they differ in way. Freud believed that the first three stages were the most important. He also understood personalities were developed by conflicts resolved and the demands from reality. Erikson believed all stage were equally important and cultural experiences helped develop personally (Wallerstein, Robert & Goldberger, 2000). They both had a different development process and outcomes. In order to grasp the theories, I will examine each theorist and personality stages individually. In the first stage, that Freud called this psychosexual stage the oral stage and Erikson called this psychosocial stage the trust vs. mistrust stage. Both Freud and Erikson acknowledge the trust and dependency infants have to their mothers. In the oral stage, the child makes the connection between the mother’s presences with satisfying of their hunger. In the trust vs. mistrust, the child develops trust when they can depend on the mother to fulfill their needs thus developing a trustworthy relationship. However, these theories express different outcome when need are satisfied or not. For Freud, the crisis here is weaning the child from the mother. As time progresses the infant begin to differentiation itself from their mother. The child comes to acknowledge there is no longer an umbilical connection and they a separate person from their mother (Simon & Gagnon). As a result, later in life they grow to be optimistic and passivity. On the other hand, if the infants who do not make the distinction turn out to be pessimistic, immature and gullibility and obsessed with the mouth. Some of these obsessions include biting nails, thumb sucking, and eating and drink obsessively and verbal aggressive. As for Erikson’s theory, trust and mistrust is the ego crisis. If the infant discover that no one is willing to fulfill his need then mistrust will develop. Conversely, if the child’s needs are satisfied through good parenting, the child will develop trust. The child will also develop the skill of hope and learn cosmic order in respect to society (Cloninger, 2004). In the second stage, Freud called this psychosexual stage the anal stage and Erikson called this psychosocial stage the autonomy vs. shame stage. Both Freud and Erikson acknowledge child want to have personal control and the importance of toilet training. In the anal stage, the child wants to master holding on and letting go. Therefore, the child learn the control his own bowel movements through toilet training. In autonomy vs. shame stage, toilet training is used to master their body functions (Wallerstein, Robert & Goldberger, 2000). This will instill a sense of control and independence in the child. However, both theories...
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